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‘Goat’s rivers’ in the Hellespont, probably an open beach somewhere opposite Lampacus, scene of the final and decisive sea-battle of the Peloponnesian war, a victory over the Athenians by the Spartans under Lysander (405). Alcibiades, in exile in Thrace, had warned the Athenian generals (who included Conon (1)) of the dangers of their exposed position, and may even have offered military help in the form of Thracians; but he was rebuffed. The accounts of how the battle started cannot be reconciled, but it is clear that, after several days of inactivity, the Athenians were caught with most of their ships unmanned.


R. J. A. Talbert (ed.), Barrington’s Atlas of the Greek and Roman World (2000), map 51 H4.Find this resource:

    Xenophon, Hellenica 2. 1–2.Find this resource:

      Plutarch, Alcibiades 37.Find this resource:

        Plutarch, Lysander 11.Find this resource:

          A. Andrewes, in David M. Lewis and others, Cambridge Ancient History 52 (1992), 494–495.Find this resource:

            J. F. Lazenby, The Peloponnesian War (2004), 240–244.Find this resource:

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