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Was the best harbour on the Asiatic side of the Hellespont. In the Iliad (2. 836) an ally of Troy and then a Thracian settlement, it was colonized c.700 bce by Milesians (see colonization, greek; miletus). From 514 it was under Persian control and served in 480 as the Asiatic bridgehead from which Xerxes crossed into Europe (Hdt. 7. 34, 43 ff.). Thereafter it was successively part of the Athenian empire until it revolted in 411 (Thuc. 8. 61–2), a Spartan ally until 394, and under Persian rule again until freed by Alexander (3) the Great in 334. It put up heroic resistance when besieged by Philip (3) V of Macedon in 200 (Polybius 16. 29–34). In Roman times and in late antiquity it was an important customs-station (OGI521). There are no significant archaeological remains at the site, but its coinage, including early electrum issues, is important.


G. E. Bean, Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites 5.Find this resource:

    D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor 752 ff., 1012 ff.Find this resource:

      G. Hirschfeld, Real-Encyclopädie d. klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 1. 129–30. M. H. Hansen and T. H. Nielsen (eds.), An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis (2004), no. 765.

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