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date: 19 October 2018

Megarian school

The Socratic school of philosophy founded by Euclides(1) of Megara in the early 4th cent. bce. Its last known head, Stilpon, died about a century later.

Its preoccupations were ethical and metaphysical. The combined influence of Socrates and Parmenides is captured in its slogan ‘The good is one thing, called by many names’. It taught the unity and invulnerability of virtue, reduced potentiality to actuality, and espoused some provocative metaphysical theses. ‘Megarian questionings’ became a byword for sophistry.

An independent branch, the Dialectical school, was founded by Dionysius of Chalcedon and included Diodorus(2) Cronus and Philon(6) among its members. Its work became a formative influence on Stoic logic (see Stoicism).


E. Zeller, Socrates and the Socratic Schools (Eng. trans. 1868).Find this resource:

G. Giannantoni, Socratis et Socraticorum Reliquiae (1990).Find this resource:

K. von Fritz, Real-Encyclopädie d. klassischen Altertumswissenschaft Suppl.5. 707 ff.Find this resource:

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