An extended and detailed literary description of any object, real or imaginary. ‘There are ekphraseis of faces and objects and places and ages and many other things’ (Hermog. Prog. 10; cf. Dion. Hal. Rhet. 10. 17, Lucian, Hist. conscr. 20, Apthonius, Progymnasmata 12). The rhetoricians thus systematized into a rhetorical exercise (*progymnasma) a poetic technique stretching from the description of the shield of Achilles in the Iliad to that of Hagia Sophia by *Paulus Silentiarius. Most were of works of art. Ekphraseis was a work by *Callistratus (5), and Eikones was the title of works by Philostratus (see
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