Dēmiourgoi, ‘public workers’, are in Homer such independent craftsmen as metalworkers, potters, and masons, and also seers, doctors, bards, and heralds. Plato (1) and Xenophon (1) use the word thus. More generally in Classical Greece the word is used sometimes in that sense, sometimes as the title of major officials in a state; though perhaps of greatest antiquity in Elis and Achaea, they are most often found in Dorian states. In the Achaean Confederacy they formed a council of ten, who assisted the stratēgos; the Arcadian League imitated this organization, based originally on local representation. Outside mainland Greece, dēmiourgoi are found in Crete and several Aegean islands, and in the Roman period in Asia Minor. In Athens there are references to a division of the citizen body into eupatridai, farmers, and dēmiourgoi, and to the involvement of those classes in the appointment of the archons after 580 bce (Ath. pol. frs. 2–3; 13. 2), but the farmers and demiourgoi are probably the result of 4th-cent. speculation.
L. R. Palmer, Transactions of the American Philological Association 1954, 18–53b.Find this resource:
K. Murakawa, Historia, Zeitschrift für alte Geschichte 1957, 385–415.Find this resource:
Archaic Greece generally
L. H. Jeffery, Archaeologia Classica 1973–4, 319 ff.Find this resource:
Crete: M. Guarducci, Rivista di filologia 1930, 54–70.Find this resource:
P. J. Rhodes, A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia (1981; new edn. 1993), 71–72, 182–184.Find this resource:
The evidence for dēmiourgoi as officials in various states is mainly epigraphical.