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Julius Caesar, reception of  

W. Jeffrey Tatum

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The reception of Caesar constitutes, for obvious reasons, an immense topic. As a political idea, Caesar exhibits from the very beginning a tension between his role as dictator and ... More

Constantia, half-sister of Constantine and wife of Licinius  

Julia Hillner

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Late antique sources remember Flavia Iulia Constantia,1 conventionally for her loyalty to her imperial relatives, both by birth and by marriage, and, more innovatively, for her Christian patronage, a ... More

tribuni plebis  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Tribuni plebis (or plebi), ‘tribunes’, were the officers of the plebs first created in 500–450bce (traditionally in 494, the date of the first secession of the plebs and their corporate recognition). ... More

demography  

Saskia Hin

People’s life courses are shaped by the complex interactions of contextual factors, of individual behavior, and of opportunities and constraints operating at the macro level. Demography ... More

masturbation  

Kelly L. Wrenhaven

In ancient Greece and Rome, masturbation was viewed with good-humored disdain. Although it was not apparently subject to the same kinds of scathing attacks that Greek comedy makes on male same-sex ... More

Zenobia  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zenobia (Septimia), or in *AramaicBath Zabbai, one of the great women of classical antiquity (PLRE 1. 990 f.). The second wife of *Septimius Odaenathus of *Palmyra, on his death in ce 267, in ... More

Zama, battle of  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zama is the name given to the final battle of the Second *Punic War, though it was not actually fought near any of the places so called (see preceding entry). *Hannibal had perhaps 36,000 ... More

war, art of, Roman  

Jonathan Coulston

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The earliest Roman battle-order was probably the spear-armed and javelin-armed Italic form of the *hoplite*phalanx, a single, close-order infantry formation. In the 4th cent. bce this was replaced by ... More

Volsci  

Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Volsci, people of ancient Italy. The Volsci first become prominent in ancient historical narratives of the early 5th cent., when they overran southern *Latium and occupied the Monti Lepini, most of ... More

Vocontii  

A. L. F. Rivet and John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vocontii, a Celtic people of Gallia Narbonensis (see celts; gaul (transalpine)) who, from at least the 3rd cent. bce (Livy, 21. 31) occupied the western foothills of the Alps south of the ... More

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