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wealth, Roman attitudes towards  

Gloria Vivenza and Neville Morley

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Roman attitudes to wealth were complex and sometimes ambivalent. Wealth was an essential basis for political and social life, but also a topic of extensive debate, which focused on the ... More


Susan Bilynskyj Dunning

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
In Roman conceptions of time, the saeculum became the longest fixed interval, calculated as a period of 100 or 110 years (as opposed to, e.g., a lustrum of only five years; cf. “census”). ... More

frugality (frugalitas) and parsimony (parsimonia)  

Grant Nelsestuen

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Arising from the agrarian and domestic contexts of classical antiquity, the notion of “frugality” (frugalitas) was a positive, desirable, and in many respects distinctively Roman concept ... More

tribunicia potestas  

T. Corey Brennan

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Tribunicia potestas (tribunician power) refers to the rights granted to Rome’s tribuni plebis—including sacrosanctity, that is, personal inviolability while in office—and ... More

Julius Caesar, reception of  

W. Jeffrey Tatum

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The reception of Caesar constitutes, for obvious reasons, an immense topic. As a political idea, Caesar exhibits from the very beginning a tension between his role as dictator and ... More

Constantia, half-sister of Constantine and wife of Licinius  

Julia Hillner

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Late antique sources remember Flavia Iulia Constantia,1 conventionally for her loyalty to her imperial relatives, both by birth and by marriage, and, more innovatively, for her Christian patronage, a ... More

tribuni plebis  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Tribuni plebis (or plebi), ‘tribunes’, were the officers of the plebs first created in 500–450bce (traditionally in 494, the date of the first secession of the plebs and their corporate recognition). ... More


Saskia Hin

People’s life courses are shaped by the complex interactions of contextual factors, of individual behavior, and of opportunities and constraints operating at the macro level. Demography ... More


Kelly L. Wrenhaven

In ancient Greece and Rome, masturbation was viewed with good-humored disdain. Although it was not apparently subject to the same kinds of scathing attacks that Greek comedy makes on male same-sex ... More


John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zenobia (Septimia), or in *AramaicBath Zabbai, one of the great women of classical antiquity (PLRE 1. 990 f.). The second wife of *Septimius Odaenathus of *Palmyra, on his death in ce 267, in ... More