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Mithridates II, king of Parthia, 125/121–91 BCE  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Subject:
Near East
Mithridates (Mihrdād) (125/121–91bce), son (an uncertain relationship) of his predecessor Artabanus I and grandson of Priapatius, was given the epithet “the Great” already in antiquity because of his ... More

Fratarakā, Sub-Seleucid Dynasty in Persis  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Shortly after his reconquest of Babylonia in 312bce, Seleucus, a former general of Alexander the Great, was able to conquer the Achaemenid heartland of Persis (Fars), and in the second ... More

Jaffa  

Benjamin Isaac

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The city of Joppe/Jaffa/Yafo on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, immediately south of modern Tel Aviv, has a long history of importance as an urban centre, from the Middle Bronze ... More

Commagenian, Greco-Iranian religious syncretism  

Bruno Jacobs

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Subject:
Near East
The religious syncretism associated with the Commagenian dynasty, combining Greek and Iranian elements, is a phenomenon linked exclusively to king Antiochus I (c. 69–36bce). Whereas its Greek ... More

Uranius, Greek writer about Arabia  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
His date is not quite certain, but 4th century ce (rather than three centuries earlier) seems likeliest. He is a source for much of the Arabian information in Stephanus of Byzantium, in ... More

Xerxes I  

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Xerxes I (OP Khšāyaršā), son of *Darius(1) and Atossa, king of *Persia486–465 bce, chosen by his father as successor (XPf ll. 31 ff.; Hdt. 7. 2–3). At the beginning of his reign he crushed a revolt ... More

Vologeses I  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
King of *Parthia, 51 ce/2–79/80. His family belonged to *Media Atropatene. Much of his reign was spent in wars with Rome and on his eastern frontier. In 54 Vologeses set his brother *Tiridates(3) on ... More

Uruk  

Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Uruk (mod. Warka; Gk. Ὀρχόη), c. 170 km. (106 mi.) south of *Babylon. It was a substantial city from c.4000 bce to the Sasanian period (see sasanids) and the source of hundreds of *cuneiform texts ... More

Urartu  

J. David Hawkins

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Urartu, iron age kingdom ( = Hebrew Ararat) in the territory of later *Armenia. The unified kingdom is known from its archaeology and monumental *cuneiform inscriptions under a dynasty c.830–640 bce. ... More

Ugarit  

Jean-François Salles

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Ugarit, an important kingdom of N. Syria in the late bronze age, known from the excavations at Ras Shamra (16 km. (10 mi.) north of Lattakie) and the hundreds of texts in Ugaritic ... More

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