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Vulgar Latin  

Roger Wright

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The language of the Roman Empire, spoken and written, was Latin. Like all languages spoken over a wide area for a long time, it varied greatly. Since the arrival of sociolinguistics in the 1960s, it ... More

Punic language  

Benjamin Fortson

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Subject:
Linguistics
The Punic language was the variety of the Northwest Semitic language Phoenician spoken in Carthage and its colonies in the western Mediterranean basin (see Phoenicians). Remains of the language have ... More

Oscan language  

Benjamin Fortson

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Subject:
Linguistics
The Sabellic language (see Sabelli) spoken in central and southern Italy, attested in several hundred inscriptions from the 6th centurybce through the mid-1st centuryce. Specific varieties (e.g., ... More

Old Persian language  

Benjamin Fortson

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Old Persian was the Iranian language spoken by the ruling class of the Achaemenid Empire, probably reflecting the Southwest Iranian dialect of Persis (see Persia). It is preserved in documents in a ... More

Lemnian language  

Rex E. Wallace

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Subject:
Linguistics
The Lemnian language was spoken by the inhabitants of Lemnos, an island in the northern Aegean, in the period before Attic Greek colonization. Lemnian is preserved on sixteen inscriptions ... More

Eteocypriot  

Philippa M. Steele

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Eteocypriot (or Eteocyprian) is a modern term referring to a group of inscriptions written in an unknown language of Iron Age Cyprus (attested 8th–4th centuriesbce). The name was coined by analogy ... More

Coptic language  

T. G. Wilfong

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Subject:
Linguistics
Coptic is the latest phase of the ancient Egyptian language, written in an alphabet partly derived from Greek and incorporating Greek vocabulary. Strongly associated with Christianity in ... More

South Picene language  

Benjamin Fortson

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Subject:
Linguistics
South Picene was the Sabellic language spoken in east-central coastal Italy by a people who called themselves Safinús (Sabines, see Sabini). Examples of the language are found on about two dozen ... More

Elymian language  

Benjamin Fortson

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Subject:
Linguistics
The language of the Elymi in western Sicily, preserved in about 130 mostly fragmentary inscriptions in the Greek alphabet, primarily from Segesta, and dating probably from the 6th and 5th ... More

Umbrian language  

Benjamin Fortson

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Subject:
Linguistics
Umbrian was the language of Sabellic populations in central Italy, including Umbria (see Umbrians) and neighbouring areas to the south that were occupied by the Volsci, Marsi, and Sabini. The bulk of ... More

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