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gifts and giving, Roman  

Neil Coffee

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Romans not only gave gifts to express emotion and build relationships; a long-standing tradition of mutual aid gave rise to more intensive exchange of gifts and services (or reciprocity), ... More

wealth, Roman attitudes towards  

Gloria Vivenza and Neville Morley

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Roman attitudes to wealth were complex and sometimes ambivalent. Wealth was an essential basis for political and social life, but also a topic of extensive debate, which focused on the ... More

frugality (frugalitas) and parsimony (parsimonia)  

Grant Nelsestuen

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Arising from the agrarian and domestic contexts of classical antiquity, the notion of “frugality” (frugalitas) was a positive, desirable, and in many respects distinctively Roman concept ... More


Miko Flohr

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The practice of fulling woollen garments was never part of an integrated textile production chain in the Greco-Roman world, though in several contexts, there were developments towards ... More

salted fish products  

Robert I. Curtis

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The Mediterranean Sea dominated Greco-Roman society in many ways, but none more importantly than as a source of food. Early Punic settlers in the West and later Greeks and Romans, ... More

energy and power  

Neville Morley

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Energy and power are closely related concepts: energy implies the capacity to do work, and power affects the rate at which work is done (energy transmitted per unit of time). The ... More

freedmen/freedwomen, Greek  

David M. Lewis and Sara Zanovello

Online publication date:
May 2017
In the Greek world, manumission, which spelt the end of an individual’s life in slavery, was achieved in a variety of ways, but it often entailed legal obligations to remain (paramenein) ... More

Panskoye I  

Vladimir F. Stolba

Panskoye I is one of the most prominent and best-studied settlements in the rural territory of Chersonesus on the Tarkhankut Peninsula (north-western Crimea). Founded in the late 5th ... More

baking, Roman  

Jared T. Benton

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The earliest Roman bakers almost certainly made bread for their own households, but not for sale to the public. Pliny the Elder tells us in his Natural History (18.28) that among the quirites of ... More

shops and shopping  

Claire Holleran

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Almost all inhabitants of the ancient world were dependent to varying degrees on retailers to supply them with at least some food items, raw materials, or manufactured goods, and this was ... More