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masturbation  

Kelly L. Wrenhaven

In ancient Greece and Rome, masturbation was viewed with good-humored disdain. Although it was not apparently subject to the same kinds of scathing attacks that Greek comedy makes on male same-sex ... More

Xenophon (1), Greek historian  

C. J. Tuplin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xenophon, son of Gryllus, from the Athenian *deme of Erchia, was born into a wealthy but politically inactive family around 430 bce. He presumably served in the cavalry (see hippeis (2) and (4)) and ... More

warfare, attitudes to, Greek and Hellenistic  

Michel Austin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Homer'sIliad, a poem about war, does not glorify war: it celebrates martial prowess but also portrays the sufferings caused by war, and *Ares, god of war, is rebuked by Zeus as the most hateful of ... More

Thucydides (2), Athenian historian, 2nd half of 5th cent. BCE  

Henry Theodore Wade-Gery, John Dewar Denniston, and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Thucydides (2), author of the (incomplete) History of the War (*Peloponnesian War) between Athens and Sparta, 431–404 bce, in eight books.He was born probably between 460 and 455 bce: he was general ... More

Solon, Athenian politician and poet  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Solon, Athenian politician and poet, was of noble descent but, whether or not the tradition that he was of moderate means is correct, came to sympathize with the poor. He was prominent in the war ... More

Polybius (1), Greek historian, c. 200–c. 118 BCE  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Greek historian of Rome's rise to Mediterranean dominion and of the world in which that happened. His father, *Lycortas of Megalopolis, was a leading figure of the *Achaean Confederacy in the 180s ... More

papyrology, Greek  

H. Maehler

Papyrus, manufactured in Egypt since c.3000 bce from a marsh plant, Cyperus papyrus (see books, greek and roman), was the most widely used writing material in the Graeco-Roman world. The object of ... More

Herodotus (1), of Halicarnassus, historian  

John P. A. Gould

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Herodotus (1), of Halicarnassus (now Bodrum on the Aegean coast of Turkey), historian. ‘Herodotus’ is (in Greek) the first word of a long historical narrative, the earliest we possess. It looks back ... More

epigraphy, Greek  

H. W. Pleket

The study of inscriptions engraved on stone or metal in Greek letters. Coin-legends (see coinage, greek) are for the numismatist, whereas painted mummy-labels and ink-written texts on *ostraca, ... More

Demosthenes(2), Athenian orator, 384–322 BCE  

George Law Cawkwell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The greatest Athenian orator. When Demosthenes was 7 years old his father died, leaving the management of his estate to his brothers, Aphobus and Demophon, and a friend, Therippides. The trustees ... More

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