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Artaphernes  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaphernes or Artaphrenes, but only the former is correct: cf. El. Irdapirna and OP †Rta-farnah-. (1) Full brother of *Darius I and satrap of Sardis, who put down the *Ionian Revolt. He figures in ... More

Artavasdes (1) II  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artavasdes (1) II of *Armenia (55/4–34 bce) succeeded his father *Tigranes (1) II, and was Rome's ally when *Crassus invaded Mesopotamia; but *Orodes' simultaneous invasion of Armenia brought him ... More

Artavasdes (2)  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artavasdes (2), king of *Media Atropatene, whose land and capital, Phraaspa, were attacked by M. *Antonius (2) in 36 bce. Enmity with the Armenian *Artavasdes (1) and a quarrel with the Parthian ... More

Artaxata  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
A royal city in *Armenia, in the district of Ararat, c.32 km. (20 mi.) SW of Erivan. It was founded by Artaxias I, traditionally with the advice of *Hannibal (Strabo 11. 14. 6; Plut. ... More

Artaxerxes (1) I, 465–424 BCE  

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaxerxes (1) I (OP Rtaxšaçā), one of *Xerxes' and Amestris' sons, who came to power in the obscure situation following his father's murder (August 465). The Egyptian Revolt, helped by ... More

Artaxerxes (2) II, 405/404–359/358 BCE  

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaxerxes (2) II (405/4–359/8 bce), eldest son of *Darius II and Parysatis, Arsu/Arses succeeded his father smoothly in 405/4. His reign is usually seen as initiating a period of accelerated ... More

Artaxerxes (3) III, 359/8–338 BCE  

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaxerxes (3) III (359/8–338 bce), Ochos (Umakuš in Bab. texts), one of *Artaxerxes (2) II's sons, proclaimed king with the name Artaxerxes (359/8). Apart from the relatively unimportant *Satraps' ... More

Artaxerxes (4) IV, 338–336 BCE  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaxerxes (4) IV (338–336 bce), throne-name of Arses, one of *Artaxerxes (3) III's sons. The *Aramaic version of the famous trilingual inscription from *Xanthus (RO 78) is dated to the ... More

Artaxerxes (6)  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaxerxes (Ardashir), the name of several *Sasanid kings, the greatest being Artaxerxes I (d. ce 241), son of Pabag, founder of the Sasanian empire. Taking advantage of the Parthian preoccupation ... More

Aryan  

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and W. F. M. Henkelman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Aryan (Skt.ārya-; Avestan airiia-), a social qualifier and mythical ethnonym sometimes used by ancient peoples of *India and Iran as self-designation with varying meaning and significance. ... More

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