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Zalmoxis  

Alan H. Griffiths

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
According to *Herodotus(1) (4. 94–6), a god of the *Getae in Thrace (‘also called Gebeleizis’) who promised immortality to his devotees; the tribe communicated with him by despatching a ... More

Zama  

R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zama was the name of more than one locality in present-day Tunisia. It is best known as the alleged site of Hannibal's defeat by P. *Cornelius Scipio Africanus (see punic wars; and next entry) in 202 ... More

Zama, battle of  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zama is the name given to the final battle of the Second *Punic War, though it was not actually fought near any of the places so called (see preceding entry). *Hannibal had perhaps 36,000 ... More

Zealots  

Martin Goodman

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zealots, a Jewish political group in the 1st cent. ce. According to *Josephus the Zealots were one of the three factions who controlled *Jerusalem in the last years of the Jewish revolt against Rome ... More

Zela  

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zela (mod. Zile), an ancient temple-state of *Pontus with a large and fertile territory and a considerable population of sacred slaves (*hierodouloi) attached to the land and to the ... More

Zeno (1), of Elea, philosoper and friend of Parmenides  

Malcolm Schofield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (1), of Elea is portrayed by *Plato(1) (Prm. 127b) as the pupil and friend of *Parmenides, and junior to him by 25 years. Their fictional meeting with a ‘very young’ *Socrates (ibid.) ... More

Zeno (2), of Citium, founder of Stoicism  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (2), of Citium (*Cyprus), (335–263 bce), founder of *Stoicism. He came to Athens in 313 and is said to have studied with or been influenced by various philosophers, notably *Crates (2) the ... More

Zeno (3), of Tarsus, Stoic  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (3) of *Tarsus, Stoic (See stoicism), *Chrysippus' successor as head of the Stoa in 204 bce. He had many followers, but wrote little; he had doubts about ekpyrōsis (conversion into ... More

Zeno (4), of Rhodes, politician, early 2nd cent. BCE  

Kenneth S. Sacks

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zeno (4) was a politician who wrote a history of Rhodes from the beginnings to his own times. *Polybius (1) used it (along with the work of *Antisthenes(2)), although he criticized its patriotic ... More

Zeno (5), of Sidon, Epicurean, b. c. 150 BCE  

William David Ross and Dirk Obbink

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Epicurean (See epicurus), pupil of the Epicurean Apollodorus and probably head of the school between him and *Phaedrus(3). *Cicero heard him lecture in Athens in 79–78, and found him querulous and ... More

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