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athletics, Roman  

Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
At Rome colourful *circus spectacles (especially chariot-racing) and *ball games were the most popular sporting activities. But Augustus promoted traditional athletics, staging athletics ... More

Atina  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Atina (mod. Atene Lucana), in Italy, *Lucanian city in the Valle di Diano. *Oscan and Greek inscriptions indicate a Hellenized (see hellenism) Oscan settlement from the 5th cent. bce, but it was not ... More

Atria  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Atria (mod. Adria), a coastal city in the north of the Po delta (see padus), now nearly 20 km. (12½ mi.) from the sea. From the late 6th cent. bce onwards it was an important entrepôt for Greek and ... More

Atrium Vestae  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Atrium Vestae, the whole ancient precinct next to the *Regia, east of the *forum Romanum, including the temple and sacred grove of *Vesta and the house of the Vestal virgins, although the term is now ... More

Augusta Praetoria  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Praetoria (mod. Aosta), a colony founded with 3,000 *praetorians in Cisalpine Gaul (see gaul (cisalpine)) by Augustus (24 bce); it was here that A. *Terentius Varro Murena had encamped the ... More

Augusta Raurica  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Raurica (modern Augst, near Basle), a colony founded by L. *Munatius Plancus in 44 bce in the territory of the Raurici. Strengthened by Augustus, with *Augusta Praetoria and ... More

Augusta Taurinorum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Taurinorum (mod. Torino, Turin), an important Augustan colony (c.25 bce) in Cisalpine Gaul (see gaul, (cisalpine)), at the confluence of the Dora and Po (*Padus) rivers (which here became ... More

Augusta Traiana  

John Wilkes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Traiana or Beroe (mod. Stara Zagora, Bulgaria) was a Roman city of *Thrace founded by Trajan to replace the Thracian-Hellenistic Beroe in the north of the Thracian plain, ... More

Augusta Treverorum  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Treverorum (mod. Trier), *civitas-capital of the *Treveri, developed from a settlement around a fort established under Augustus to guard a crossing of the Moselle. In the early ... More

Augusta Vindelic(or)um  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Vindelic(or)um (mod. Augsburg), probably originated in a civil settlement around an Augustan military base protecting an important crossroads-site, and was designated capital of *Raetia by ... More

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