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Constantine III, Roman emperor  

Raymond Davis

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The last of three usurpers proclaimed in Britain (406–7 ce) by the army, with part of which he crossed to Gaul hoping to rescue it from barbarian invasions. He won over Spain, and was recognized as ... More

Constantinople  

Alan Douglas Edward Cameron

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Constantinople was founded by *Constantine I on the site of *Byzantium in 324 ce, shortly after his victory over *Licinius near by. There are hardly any sources before the 6th cent., and these are ... More

Constantius I, Flavius Valerius, Roman emperor  

Raymond Davis

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Flavius Valerius Constantius I, (perhaps Flavius Iulius before 293; nicknamed, not before the 6th cent., Chlorus), born no later than 250 ce, of Illyrian stock; stories of his relationship with ... More

Constantius II, Flavius Iulius, Roman emperor  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Third son of Constantine I, first appointed Caesar at the age of seven in 324 ce he became Augustus in the east after his father's death in 337; until 350 he was occupied on the eastern front ... More

Constantius III, Roman emperor  

Raymond Davis

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Successful against *Constantine III as magister militum of *Honorius, from then on (411 ce ) he effectively ruled the west. Recovering Galla *Placidia from the Visigoths he married her (417); she ... More

corruption  

Christopher Kelly

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Corruption is a difficult term; its use largely a matter of perspective. Indeed, from a modern, western point of view, many practices widely accepted in antiquity seem both immoral and detrimental to ... More

Cosmas Indicopleustes  

Samuel James Beeching Barnish

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cosmas Indicopleustes, fl. 545 ce, *Alexandrian merchant, Nestorian, and argumentative autodidact. His travels included *Ethiopia, but perhaps not the Indies. His self-illustrated ... More

defensor civitatis  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Defensor civitatis, ‘defender of the municipality’, an office revived by *Valentinian I and *Valens in c.ce 365 to protect *peasants against local landowners. The praetorian prefect was to appoint ... More

De rebus bellicis  

Edward Arthur Thompson and R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
De rebus bellicis is an anonymous treatise preserved with the *Notitia Dignitatum, recommending to the emperors (probably *Valentinian I and *Valens, 364–75 ce) plans for ... More

Diocletian, Roman emperor  

Raymond Davis

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus), originally named Diocles. Of obscure origins, born in Dalmatia perhaps in the early 240s ce, he rose to command the domestici (bodyguard) of the ... More

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