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menstruation  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Was, in Hippocratic medicine (see Hippocrates(2)), regarded as essential to female health. The age of menarche was believed to be the fourteenth year, as the network of internal channels in the ... More

midwives  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Midwives and normal labour are rarely mentioned in the Hippocratic treatises (see Hippocrates(2)), perhaps because Hippocratic doctors concerned themselves with abnormal labour only. Occasional ... More

Moero, of Byzantium  

Richard Hunter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Female poet of late 4th–early 3rd cent. bce. Only scanty remains survive: ten verses from the hexameter Mnemosyne, two epigrams, a summary of a story of cruelty and mad passion from her Ἀραί ... More

motherhood, Greek  

Marilyn B. Skinner

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Women were deemed to have a natural right to *marriage and *children. Physicians maintained that intercourse and *childbirth were necessary to female health and prescribed pregnancy to cure ... More

motherhood, Roman  

Suzanne Dixon

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Roman word for mother (mater) is reflected in such words as materfamilias and matrona, a respectable wife (Cic.Top. 14; Gell.NA 18. 6. 8–9). The legendary ‘first’ Roman divorce was of a virtuous ... More

Munichia (1), fortified hill north-east of Piraeus  

Robert Garland

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Munichia (1) (or Munychia), mod. Kastella, is a steep hill to the north-east of *Piraeus which rises to a height of 86 m. (282 ft.). Directly below is Munichia Port and to the south-east Zea Port. In ... More

Nossis, fl. c. 300 BCE  

Alan Douglas Edward Cameron

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Nossis (fl. c. 300 bce), Greek poetess from Epizephyrian Locri (see locri epizephyrii), author of a dozen epigrams from *Meleager(2)'s Garland in the Greek *anthology, mostly inscriptions ... More

Pamphila, of Epidaurus  

M. T. Griffin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pamphila of *Epidaurus, a scholar and anecdotal historian under *Nero. Her chief work, Ἱστορικὰ ὑπομνήματα, ‘Historical Notes’, of which *Diogenes (6) Laertius and Aulus *Gellius preserve ten ... More

Phaleron  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Phaleron, the harbour (epineion) of Athens as late as 490 bce (Hdt. 6. 116); offering little shelter, it was thereafter soon displaced by *Piraeus. The site is uncertain—probably at the low hill of ... More

phallus  

Richard Seaford

Phallus, an image of the penis, often as erect, to be found in various contexts, in particular (a) in certain rituals associated with fertility, notably Dionysiac *processions (see dionysus): see ... More

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