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fig  

Lin Foxhall

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The fig-tree is an underrated food source in antiquity, producing more calories per unit area than any other crop: 15,000,000 kilocalories per hectare. Though vigorous, the trees are sensitive to ... More

finance, Greek and Hellenistic  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The collective deployment of resources by the community inevitably has socio-political implications (who pays? who benefits?). But public finance in Greek states rarely had economic aims beyond the ... More

finance, Roman  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
‘Taxes are the sinews of the state’. So claimed both Cicero and the great jurist Ulpian. Despite this recognition of the central importance of taxation no systematic ancient treatment of Roman public ... More

fiscus  

Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar and Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Fiscus originally meant ‘basket’ or ‘money-bag’ and thence came to denote the private funds of an individual or, in an administrative context, to mean the public funds held by a provincial governor. ... More

fishing  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Fish populations of the *Mediterranean are less abundant than those of the oceans. Gradients of temperature and salinity resulting from the depth and the closure of the ecosystem, however, ... More

follis  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A bag for coins, then—by the late 3rd or early 4th cent. ce—a bag containing a fixed number of coins, then a unit of account; the value of this unit of account varied over the centuries from the ... More

food and drink  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The ancient diet was based on cereals, legumes, oil, and wine. *Cereals, especially wheat and barley, were the staple food and the principal source of carbohydrates. They were eaten in many different ... More

food supply, Greek  

Lin Foxhall

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
For Greek city-states of the Archaic and Hellenistic periods the ethos of self-sufficiency (autarkeia) dominated the ideology of food supply. In reality few Greek cities ever outgrew the ... More

food supply, Roman  

Dominic W. Rathbone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The growth of Rome to a city of perhaps 250,000 inhabitants in the time of the *Gracchi and of up to one million under *Augustus, far outstripping the productive capacity of her hinterland, created ... More

freedmen/freedwomen, Greek  

David M. Lewis and Sara Zanovello

Online publication date:
May 2017
In the Greek world, manumission, which spelt the end of an individual’s life in slavery, was achieved in a variety of ways, but it often entailed legal obligations to remain (paramenein) ... More

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