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arms and armour, Roman  

Jonathan Coulston

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Artistic representations, military treatises, other literary and subliterary references, and archaeological artefacts are the main sources of information. Pre-imperial artefacts are sparse and come ... More

Arpinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arpinum, in Italy, a Volscian hill-town (see volsci) in the *Liris valley, modern Arpino, with interesting polygonal walls. Rome captured Arpinum from its Samnite conquerors and gave it civitas sine ... More

Arretium  

John Bryan Ward-Perkins and D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arretium (mod. Arezzo), north-easternmost of the cities of Etruria (see etruscans) and one of the latest founded. It is not certain when it passed under Roman rule, but in the 3rd cent. bce it was an ... More

art, funerary, Roman  

Glenys Davies

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Early republican tombs at Rome have none of the decorative features of contemporary Etruscan funerary art (see etruscans), but by the mid to late republic some aristocratic tombs show a desire for ... More

artisans and craftsmen  

Antony Spawforth

In Greece the prejudices of the (largely landowning) citizen-élites against the activities of ‘mechanics’ (banausoi), often slaves, *freedmen, or *metics, subjected artisans to formal handicaps in ... More

Arverni  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arverni, an advanced iron age people, occupying modern Auvergne, who contested the primacy of Gaul with the *Aedui (Caes. BGall. 1. 31. 3). In 207 bce they treated with *Hasdrubal (2) (Livy 27. 39. ... More

Aspendus  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aspendus, a city in *Pamphylia whose inhabitants claimed kinship with the Argives (see hellenism; argos (1)). Linguistic evidence shows that most of the inhabitants were of Anatolian origin (see ... More

Atella  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Atella, *Campanian city, in the Clanis valley. The site was inhabited from the 7th cent. bce and urbanized in the 4th. Atella was a Roman ally (see socii) by 338 but defected in 211. It ... More

Athenaeum  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Hadrian's famous institution for the study of Greek *rhetoric and letters in the centre of Rome. In the 4th cent. ce it was the setting for public *declamation in Latin as well. Its ... More

Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus  

Eric William Marsden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus, author of an extant work on siege-engines (Περὶ μηχανημάτων; see artillery; siegecraft), perhaps to be dated in the 1st cent. bce or ce.

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