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Apamea  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apamea, a city on the *Orontes, *Syria, which replaced the Macedonian military colony of Pella. It was founded by Seleucus I (or perhaps Antiochus I). It was the military headquarters of Seleucid ... More

Apries  

Alan Brian Lloyd

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Apries (OT Hophra), a 26th Dynasty pharaoh (589–570 bce) (see saites), campaigned with some success against Phoenician cities and Cyprus with the assistance of Carian and Ionian ... More

Arabia  

William Woodthorpe Tarn, Eric William Gray, and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Greeks of the Classical period were familiar with the coast of Arabia and with Arabia Petraea. They knew less about the other divisions into which by *Ptolemy (4)'s time they had divided the ... More

Arabs  

Jean-François Salles and J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Ancient tribes and peoples who lived in, and around the modern Arabian peninsula. The earliest references from the Neo-Assyrian annals and the Bible date back to the 9th–7th cents. bce; there was no ... More

Aradus  

Jean-François Salles and J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
The main city of north Phoenicia, on the island of Arwad, whose kings in the 5th cent. bce, allied to the Persians, ruled a large area on the mainland from the plain of Antioch (1) to ... More

Aramaic  

J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aramaic, a *Semitic language, was used in the ancient near east from early in the 1st millennium bce and through the Roman period. Originating in upper Mesopotamia, it is first known ... More

Araxes  

Eric Herbert Warmington

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Properly the Armenian river now called Aras, Ras, or Yerash, rising in Bin Geul Dağ, then flowing eastwards across Erzerum and the Mogan Steppe. Until ce 1897 it joined the Kur (ancient Cyrus), but ... More

Aretas  

J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aretas, the name of several kings of the *Nabataeans (Nabataean Aramaic form ḥrtt). reigned in the early 2nd cent. bce (c.168). (c.120–96 bce, possibly = the Arab king ... More

Ariaramnes, c. 280–c. 230 BCE  

B. C. McGing

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
An early member of the Cappadocian ruling house, eldest son of Ariarathes II. It is generally believed that either he or his son *Ariarathes III, whom he appointed joint ruler, was the ... More

Ariarathes  

B. C. McGing

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Ancestral name of the Hellenistic kings of *Cappadocia in Asia Minor. They were an Iranian family claiming descent from *Cyrus (1) the Great, or one of the seven Persians who slew the ... More

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