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astronomical instruments  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Although the introduction of an astronomical instrument (the gnomon, an upright stick for measuring shadow-lengths) is credited to *Anaximander in the 6th cent. bce, reliable information on the form ... More

astronomy  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The use of the heliacal rising and setting of prominent stars or star-groups to mark points in the year is found in the earliest literature of the Greeks (*Homer and *Hesiod, e.g. Op. 619 ff.), and ... More

Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus  

Eric William Marsden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus, author of an extant work on siege-engines (Περὶ μηχανημάτων; see artillery; siegecraft), perhaps to be dated in the 1st cent. bce or ce.

Athenaeus (3), of Attaleia, founder of the Pneumatists  

Ludwig Edelstein and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Athenaeus (3) of Attaleia in Pamphylia was the founder of a school of physicians, the *Pneumatists. Imbued with Stoic ideas but well trained in philosophy in general, Athenaeus assumed as basic ... More

Autolycus (2), of Pitane, Greek astronomer, fl. late 4th cent. BCE  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Astronomer (fl. late 4th cent. bce), author of two works on elementary spherical astronomy, among the earliest Greek mathematical treatises that have come down to us entire: (1) On the ... More

Baccheius Geron, 3rd–4th cent. CE  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Baccheius Geron wrote an informative Introduction to the Art of Music in question-and-answer form, giving pithy harmonic and rhythmic analyses, mainly Aristoxenian (see aristoxenus) but ... More

Bacchius, of Tanagra, physician, 275–200? BCE  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Member of the *Alexandrian ‘school’ of *Herophilus. Bacchius' influential Hippocratic lexicon (Lexeis1–3; see hippocrates(2)), of which Epicles of Crete produced an abridged version and against which ... More

baking, Roman  

Jared T. Benton

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The earliest Roman bakers almost certainly made bread for their own households, but not for sale to the public. Pliny the Elder tells us in his Natural History (18.28) that among the quirites of ... More

Balbus  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Balbus wrote a surveying treatise on measurements and geometrical shapes. He undertook military surveying during the Dacian campaigns of an emperor, either *Domitian or *Trajan. See ... More

Bolus  

David John Furley and J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
RE, from Mendes in Egypt, contemporary of *Callimachus (3) (3rd cent. bce.), a writer on *magic and *pharmacology. A work of his entitled On Sympathies and Antipathies was ... More

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