At Gubbio (*Iguvium; see umbrians), there were discovered in 1444 seven bronze tablets of varying sizes (the largest measure 86 by 56.5 cm. (33 by 22 inches), the smallest 40 by 28 cm. (16 by 12 ...
At Gubbio (*Iguvium; see umbrians), there were discovered in 1444 seven bronze tablets of varying sizes (the largest measure 86 by 56.5 cm. (33 by 22 inches), the smallest 40 by 28 cm. (16 by 12 inches)), engraved on one or both sides with Umbrian texts, partly in the native, partly in the Latin alphabet. These are the famous Iguvine Tables. They range in date probably from c.200 bce to the early 1st cent. bce and are the main source of our knowledge of Umbrian (see SABELLIC LANGUAGES).The texts contain the proceedings and liturgy of a brotherhood of priests, the frater atiieřiur ‘Atiedian Brethren’, not unlike the Roman arval brethren (see fratres arvales). The name is clearly to be linked with atiieřiate (dative sing.), the name of one of the family groupings (fameřias) within Iguvine society; it had two subdivisions, which may correspond to two gentes mentioned in rituals as having sacrifices performed on their behalf (petruniaper natine, vuçiiaper natine).Less
The *Veneti(2) learnt to write from the *Etruscans during the 6th cent. bce and some 250 to 300 inscriptions survive, mostly votive or funerary, nearly all quite short (only one has more than ten ...
The *Veneti(2) learnt to write from the *Etruscans during the 6th cent. bce and some 250 to 300 inscriptions survive, mostly votive or funerary, nearly all quite short (only one has more than ten words); these texts range from the last quarter of the 6th to the last quarter of the 2nd cent. bce. With the onset of Romanization, some texts were written in the native language but in the Latin alphabet. The Venetic script has two noteworthy features: different signs for t and d in each Venetic city; on the other hand, generalization to all regions, from the 5th cent. bce onwards, of a system of syllabic punctuation that involved bracketing with dots any syllable-initial vowel and any consonant that closed a syllable (e.g. . e .g o, dona . s . t o).Examples of texts (with punctuation omitted): mego doto vhugsiia votna…reitiiai op voltiio leno (‘Fuxia, wife of Voto, gave me to…[the goddess] Reitia by act of spontaneous will’); osts katusiaiios donasto, atra es termonios deivos (‘Osts, son of Katusios, offered [this precinct], entrance [allowed only] up to the Boundary Gods’); (in the Latin alphabet) enoni ontei appioi sselboisselboi andeticobos ecupetaris (‘grave of Ennonios for Onts, for Appios and for himself, [all three] sons of Andetios’); kellos pittamnikos toler trumusijatei donom (‘Kellos son of Pittamnos brought a gift to [the goddess] Trumusiatis’).Less