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Masada  

Edith Mary Smallwood and Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Masada is a small isolated plateau 457 m. (1,500 ft.) high, on the western shore of the Dead Sea, and accessible from there only by the tortuous ‘snake path’. *Herod(1), having secured his family in ... More

midrash  

Martin Goodman

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Midrash, a type of exegesis of scriptural texts practised by *Jews. The genre of midrash is characterized by the use of an explicit citation of, or clear allusions to, a passage in an authoritative ... More

Mishnah  

Martin Goodman

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
A collection of legal opinions which became the foundation document of rabbinic Judaism. Compiled in c.ce 200 in Palestine by the patriarch Judah haNasi and his school, the Mishnah comprises the ... More

Paul, St  

Christopher Rowland

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
St Paul, a Roman citizen from *Tarsus was a convert (see conversion) from Pharisaic to Messianic Judaism as a result of a mystical experience (Galatians 1: 12 and 16) when he believed himself called ... More

Pharisees  

Martin Goodman

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pharisees, an influential religious group among *Jews in the late Hellenistic and early Roman periods. Explicit references to Pharisees are found in *Josephus and the New Testament and in Christian ... More

Philip (4), tetrarch, son of Herod (1)  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Philip (4), following the will left by his father *Herod (1), was confirmed by *Augustus tetrarch (see tetrarchy) of the northern part of his kingdom, designated as Batanea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, ... More

Philon (4), 'Philo'  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Philon (4), ‘Philo’, often known as Philo Judaeus, philosopher, writer and political leader, was the leading exponent of Alexandrian-Jewish culture (see alexandria(1)), and, together with *Josephus, ... More

Pontius Pilatus  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pontius Pilatus, prefect of *Judaea26–36 ce (see praefectus). A famous inscription (EJ 369) from *Caesarea (2) attests to the name of his post. Offences against religious sentiment, perhaps not ... More

prayer, Jewish  

Stefan C. Reif

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Although some of the inspiration for later Jewish prayers undoubtedly came from the ancient Near East and the early books of the Hebrew Bible, there was at that early period of development ... More

Ptolemaeus (4), of Mende, priest and author  

Kenneth S. Sacks

Ptolemaeus of Mende, a priest, wrote on the Egyptian kings in three books. He wrote before Apion (first half of the 1st cent. bce), who refers to him. He attributes the Hebrew Exodus under ... More

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