Francis Redding Walton and John Scheid
Attis, in mythology, the youthful consort of *Cybele and prototype of her eunuch devotees. The myth exists in two main forms, with many variants. According to the Phrygian tale (Paus. 7. 17. 10–12; cf. Arn. Adv. nat. 5. 5–7), the gods castrated the androgynous *Agdistis; from the severed male parts an almond tree sprang and by its fruit Nana conceived Attis. Later Agdistis fell in love with him, and to prevent his marriage to another caused him to castrate himself. Agdistis is clearly a doublet of Cybele, though Arnobius brings them both into his account. Ovid (Fast. 4. 221–44) and others change many details, but keep the essential aetiological feature, the self-castration. In a probably Lydian version Attis, like *Adonis, is killed by a boar. The story of Atys, son of *Croesus, who was killed by the Phrygian Adrastus in a boar-hunt (Hdt. 1. 34–35) is an adaptation of this, and attests its antiquity, though the Phrygian is probably the older version.
Bacchanalia can be used to mean either ‘Bacchic festival’ or ‘Bacchic places of worship’, but usually translates the Greek *mysteries (orgia), with special reference to the worship suppressed by the Roman authorities in 186
Charles Stewart and John North
Herbert Jennings Rose and John North
Bellona (older form Duellona), Roman goddess of war. She had no flamen (see