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Constantia, half-sister of Constantine and wife of Licinius  

Julia Hillner

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Late antique sources remember Flavia Iulia Constantia,1 conventionally for her loyalty to her imperial relatives, both by birth and by marriage, and, more innovatively, for her Christian patronage, a ... More

Constantinople  

Alan Douglas Edward Cameron

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Constantinople was founded by *Constantine I on the site of *Byzantium in 324 ce, shortly after his victory over *Licinius near by. There are hardly any sources before the 6th cent., and these are ... More

conversion  

M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Christianity
In classical Greek metanoia signifies change of heart or purpose rather than renunciation of one way of life or worship for another. Latin conversio may suggest alteration of principle, but not a ... More

Cosmas Indicopleustes  

Samuel James Beeching Barnish

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cosmas Indicopleustes, fl. 545 ce, *Alexandrian merchant, Nestorian, and argumentative autodidact. His travels included *Ethiopia, but perhaps not the Indies. His self-illustrated ... More

crucifixion  

George Ronald Watson and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Crucifixion seems to have been a form of punishment borrowed by the Romans from elsewhere, probably *Carthage. As a Roman penalty it is first certainly attested in the *Punic Wars. It was normally ... More

Cyprian, c. 200–258 CE  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Christianity
Son of rich parents probably from the upper ranks of curial society (see decuriones) rather than of Roman senatorial rank, he became bishop of *Carthage (248) soon after baptism and was quickly beset ... More

Cyril of Alexandria, d. 444 CE  

Henry Chadwick and John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Bishop from 412 after his uncle Theophilus. He continued Theophilus’ suppression in Egypt of all error (*paganism, *Judaism, heresy), though his monks probably had not his approval for their murder ... More

Cyril of Jerusalem  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Bishop from c. 350 ce to his death in 387 (although banished three times from his see). His 24 Catechetical Lectures are an important source for liturgical history and for the topography ... More

Damasus I, pope, 366–384 CE  

Samuel James Beeching Barnish

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Christianity
Damasus organized bloody riots to defeat his rival Ursinus. Elegant and vigorous, cultivated and unscrupulous, this ‘matrons' earpick’ increased the wealth and status of his church, but generally ... More

Dionysius (4) the Areopagite, Athenian theological writer  

Andrew Lintott and Andrew Louth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Christianity
An Athenian converted at Athens by St *Paul (Acts 17: 34). Four treatises—The Celestial Hierarchy, The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, The Divine Names, and The Mystical Theology—and ten letters ... More

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