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commentarii  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Commentarii ‘memoranda’, were often private or businesslike, e.g. accounts, notebooks for speeches, legal notes, or teaching materials. Their public use (excluding the false ‘commentarii of the ... More

commercium  

A. N. Sherwin-White and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Commercium was the right of any Latinus (see latini) to own Roman land and to enter into contracts with a Roman that were according to the forms of Roman law and enforceable in Roman courts without ... More

congiarium  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Congiarium, from congius (a measure of capacity = 6 sextarii (see measures)), a quantity of oil, wine, etc. , distributed as a gift, later also the cash equivalent. From the time of Augustus onwards, ... More

contubernium  

M. I. Finley and Keith Bradley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Contubernium meant a ‘dwelling together’, as of soldiers or animals, but referred especially to a quasi-marital union between slave and slave or slave and free. Since a slave ... More

credit  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Credit, the temporary transfer of property rights over money or goods, was central to the functioning of ancient society. The great majority of credit operations would have been informal transactions ... More

debt  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Debt, the creation of obligations in cash or kind, existed at all levels of society throughout the ancient world: from loans of seed and implements between peasants (Hes.Op. 396 ff., 453 ff.) to ... More

decuma  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In Italy, by the 2nd cent. bce, one-tenth of the grain harvest (and one-fifth of the fruit harvest) on *ager publicus was paid to the state; it was collected by *publicani. In the provinces the ... More

dēmiourgoi  

Frank William Walbank and P. J. Rhodes

Dēmiourgoi, ‘public workers’, are in *Homer such independent craftsmen as metalworkers, potters, and masons, and also seers, doctors, bards, and heralds. *Plato (1) and *Xenophon (1) use the word ... More

demography  

Saskia Hin

People’s life courses are shaped by the complex interactions of contextual factors, of individual behavior, and of opportunities and constraints operating at the macro level. Demography ... More

Docimium  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Docimium was a city in *Phrygia, about 25 km. (15 ½ mi.) north-east of modern Afyon. It was named after a Macedonian founder, Docimus, and was one of the rare Hellenistic settlements of ... More

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