A. N. Sherwin-White and Andrew Lintott
M. I. Finley and Keith Bradley
Contubernium meant a ‘dwelling together’, as of soldiers or animals, but referred especially to a quasi-marital union between slave and slave or slave and free. Since a slave lacked juristic personality, a contubernium was not a marriage but a factual situation, at the pleasure of the slave-owner, creating no legal consequences despite the use of such words as uxor, maritus, or pater, even in legal texts. Children were the property of the mother's owner; no slave-woman could be guilty of adultery; manumission of one or both parents need not extend to their issue. Sepulchral inscriptions indicate that contubernia were highly valued. But how widespread de facto slave ‘families’ were and which social contexts best favoured them cannot be accurately known. Slave-owners always retained the right to separate slave family members, and commonly did so to judge from records of slave sales and bequests.
For bibliography see
Paul C. Millett
Paul C. Millett
Frank William Walbank and P. J. Rhodes
People’s life courses are shaped by the complex interactions of contextual factors, of individual behavior, and of opportunities and constraints operating at the macro level. Demography studies these processes with a focus on particular transitions in the life course: birth, leaving home, marriage, and other transitions in civil status (divorce, remarriage, and transitions into widowhood), the birth and survival of offspring, migration, and finally the end of the life cycle—death.
Initial work on the ancient world focussed primarily on macro-level data, trying to establish overall trends in population development on the basis of census figures and other population estimates. This approach has received further impetus with the advent of survey demography (see Population Trends). More recently, attention has turned to single events in the life course. Core demographic studies have attempted to establish patterns and rates of marriage, fertility, migration, and mortality. Others have taken a complementary approach with a stronger focus on qualitative data. These support investigation of sociological, cultural, and economic aspects of demographic phenomena. The remainder of this article focusses on a concise evaluation of current understanding of marriage, fertility, migration, mortality, and population trends in the ancient Greco-Roman world.
Docimium was a city in *Phrygia, about 25 km. (15 ½ mi.) north-east of modern Afyon. It was named after a Macedonian founder, Docimus, and was one of the rare Hellenistic settlements of central Phrygia. Under the Roman empire it was known principally for its marble *quarries, which were under imperial control from the time of Tiberius, and which produced enormous quantities of white and polychrome (pavonazetto) *marble. This was used for large-scale imperial building projects, for instance in *Trajan's forum at Rome, and widely for prestige civic building in Asia Minor, for instance for the theatre at Hierapolis. Sculpture workshops attached to the quarries were also responsible for making elaborate, decorated *sarcophagi, which were sold both inside and outside Asia Minor, and for producing free-standing sculpture during the 2nd and 3rd cents.