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Gessius Florus  

Howard Hayes Scullard

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Roman knight from Clazomenae, married Cleopatra, a friend of *Poppaea Sabina, and thus gained the favour of *Nero who in 64 ce appointed him *procurator of *Judaea which Gessius proceeded ... More

God-fearers (theosebeis)  

Pieter W. van der Horst

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In ancient literature (both Graeco-Roman and Jewish and Christian) as well as in epigraphic material (mainly Jewish), one finds references to persons or groups variously called theosebeis, sebomenoi, ... More

Hasmoneans  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
A family of Jewish high priests and kings, descended from Mattathias, the father of Judas Maccabaeus (see maccabees). Prominent between 165 and 37 bce, they ruled *Judaea between 142 and 63, creating ... More

Heracleopolis, Jewish politeuma  

Patrick Sänger

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
There existed, under the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt, an institution, or association, called a politeuma (“polity”). Usually the word politeuma is related to Greek city states or poleis. In this context ... More

Herod (1) the Great, c. 73–4 BCE  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Herod (1) the Great (c. 73–4 bce), son of the Idumaean *Antipater(6), was through him made governor of Galilee in 47 bce and then, with his brother, designated tetrarch (see tetrarchy) by M. ... More

Herod (2) Antipas  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Herod (2) Antipas, following the will left by his father *Herod(1), was appointed by Augustus tetrarch of Galilee (where he rebuilt the city of Sepphoris and founded *Tiberias) and of Peraea, a ... More

Idumaea  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Idumaea, the lowland hill-country of southern *Judaea, was settled by the Edomites between the 8th and 6th cents. bce as a result of the *Nabataean Arab occupation of biblical Edom. Idumaea was ... More

Iulius Agrippa (1) I, Marcus, client king of Judaea, 10 BCE–44 CE  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Marcus Iulius Agrippa (1) I, (10 bce– 44 ce), called ‘Herod’ in the Acts of the Apostles but ‘Agrippa’ on his coins. A grandson of *Herod(1) the Great and eventually ruler of his former kingdom. He ... More

Iulius Agrippa (2) II, Marcus, son of Agrippa I, b. 27/28 CE  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Iulius Agrippa (2) II, Marcus (b. CE 27/8), did not succeed his father *Agrippa I in 44, but lived in Rome. There he supported the Jews before the emperor Claudius against the Samaritans and the ... More

Iulius Alexander, Tiberius  

Ronald Syme and Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Tiberius Iulius Alexander, of an opulent Alexandrian Jewish family, was the son of Alexander the Alabarch, who gilded the Temple gates, and nephew of *Philon(4). A renegade from Judaism, he rose high ... More

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