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Alexander (1) I, 'the Philhellene', king of Macedon, c. 498–454 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alexander (1) I, ‘the Philhellene’, king of Macedon c.498–454 bce. Subject to Persia from 492 and related by marriage to the Persian noble Bubares, he used his influence to extend his territory ... More

Alexander (2) II, king of Macedon, 370–368 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alexander (2) II, eldest son of *Amyntas (1) III and Eurydice, and king of Macedon 370–368 bce. His short and turbulent reign was bedevilled by rivalry and open war with his brother-in-law, Ptolemy ... More

Alexander III(3), 'the Great', of Macedon, 356–323 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Son of *Philip (1) II and *Olympias. As crown prince he was taught by *Aristotle (from 342); he was his father's deputy in Macedon (340) and fought with distinction at the battle of *Chaeronea (338). ... More

Alexander (4) IV, 323–310? BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alexander (4) IV (323–?310 bce), posthumous son of *Alexander (3) the Great and *Roxane. Already designated to the kingship at Babylon, he was elevated by *Perdiccas (3) (322) to join ... More

Alexander (5), of Pherae, tyrant, 369–358 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
He achieved power by the murder of his uncle, Polyphron, and throughout his reign he attempted to restore the dominant position in *Thessaly which *Jason (2) had won for *Pherae, struggling against ... More

Alexander (6) I, king of Molossia, 342–330/329 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alexander (6) I, king of Molossia in *Epirus (342–330/29 bce). Brother of *Olympias, he grew up at the court of *Philip (1) II and was placed on the Molossian throne by force in 342. Ties ... More

Alexander (7) II, king of Molossia, 272–c. 240 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alexander (7) II, son of *Pyrrhus and king of Molossia 272–c.240 bce. During the Chremonidean War (see chremonides) he invaded Macedonia (c.262/1) but was routed and deposed by *Antigonus (2) ... More

Alexander (9), viceroy of Corinth and Euboea, c. 290–c. 245 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alexander (9) (c. 290–c. 245 bce), son of *Craterus (2) and his successor as viceroy of *Corinth and *Euboea, declared himself independent in 249 (rather than 252) and allied himself with the ... More

alliance, Greek  

P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Fundamentally, an agreement between states to fight together (symmachein) against a common enemy, so that the standard term is symmachia. Such alliances might be made either for a limited period or ... More

Alyattes  

Rosalind Thomas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Alyattes, fourth *Lydian king (c.610–560 bce), of the house of *Gyges and father of *Croesus, finally drove back the *Cimmerians, extended Lydian control to the *Halys, and made war on ... More

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