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Carrara  

T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
White *marble*quarries in NW Italy. Perhaps first exploited on a small scale by the *Etruscans, they were further developed after the foundation of the colony of *Luna in 177 bce, which acted as a ... More

Cassiterides, 'Tin Islands'  

Eric Herbert Warmington and Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A name applied generically to all the north Atlantic tin lands, and often associated with Cornwall and the Scillies. They were said to have been known first by the *Phoenicians or Carthaginians (see ... More

cereals  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The most important component of the diet (see food and drink). The Greeks and Romans cultivated wheat, barley, oats, rye, and millets, using dry-farming methods. Greek and Roman farmers did not ... More

class struggle  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Class struggle, as a concept and phrase, is indelibly associated with the Marxist tradition of socio-historical analysis and practical political endeavour. ‘The history of all hitherto ... More

Cleomenes (3), of Naucratis, financial administrator  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In 332/1 bce*Alexander (3) the Great placed him in charge of the eastern sector of Egypt with responsibility for the fiscal system of the entire country. According to the Aristotelian ... More

clubs, Greek  

Marcus Niebuhr Tod and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Despite the large number and great popularity of clubs in the Greek world, both in the Hellenistic and in the Graeco-Roman period, literature makes surprisingly few references to them, and the ... More

clubs, Roman  

George Hope Stevenson and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Latin words corresponding most closely to the English ‘club’ are *collegium and sodalitas (see sodales). The former was the official title of the four great priestly colleges, *pontifices, ... More

coinage, Greek  

Keith Rutter

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Coinage to the Greeks was one of the forms of *Money available to measure value, store wealth, or facilitate exchange. Coins ... More

coinage, Roman  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
There are two related stories about Roman coinage: the one of its internal evolution, and the other of its progressive domination of the Mediterranean world, its use throughout the Roman empire, and ... More

collatio lustralis  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Collatio lustralis (chrysargyron), a tax in gold and silver levied every five years (later four) on traders in the widest sense. It was instituted by *Constantine, and abolished in the east by ... More

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