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Tullius Cicero, Marcus, philosophica, the famous orator Cicero  

John Hedley Simon and Dirk Obbink

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Apart from the treatises on rhetoric, an important part of the Hellenistic philosophical curriculum (though see below), these fall into two parts:(a) the writings on political philosophy and ... More

Volumnius, Publius  

M. T. Griffin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A philosopher who accompanied *Brutus in his campaign against the triumvirs (see triumviri). He recorded, perhaps in a biography, prodigies (see portents) which preceded Brutus' last ... More

women in philosophy  

Vicki Lynn Harper

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Women in philosophy are recorded in antiquity, though extant writings are few, and there is controversy over dating and authorship of texts. Most of the women whom ancient sources identify as ... More

Xenocrates (1), of Chalcedon, disciple of Plato (1) and head of the Academy, 339–314 BCE  

Guy Cromwell Field and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Xenocrates (1) of Chalcedon, son of Agathenor, disciple of *Plato(1) and head of the *Academy from 339 to 314 bce. He is presented to us as a man of impressive personality, with a combination of ... More

Xenophanes, of Colophon, poet, theologian, and natural philosopher  

Charles H. Kahn

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xenophanes of Colophon, poet, theologian, and natural philosopher, left Ionia (see ionians) at the age of 25, probably after the Persian Conquest in 545 bce, and led a wandering life for 67 years, ... More

Zeno (1), of Elea, philosoper and friend of Parmenides  

Malcolm Schofield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (1), of Elea is portrayed by *Plato(1) (Prm. 127b) as the pupil and friend of *Parmenides, and junior to him by 25 years. Their fictional meeting with a ‘very young’ *Socrates (ibid.) ... More

Zeno (2), of Citium, founder of Stoicism  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (2), of Citium (*Cyprus), (335–263 bce), founder of *Stoicism. He came to Athens in 313 and is said to have studied with or been influenced by various philosophers, notably *Crates (2) the ... More

Zeno (3), of Tarsus, Stoic  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (3) of *Tarsus, Stoic (See stoicism), *Chrysippus' successor as head of the Stoa in 204 bce. He had many followers, but wrote little; he had doubts about ekpyrōsis (conversion into ... More

Zeno (5), of Sidon, Epicurean, b. c. 150 BCE  

William David Ross and Dirk Obbink

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Epicurean (See epicurus), pupil of the Epicurean Apollodorus and probably head of the school between him and *Phaedrus(3). *Cicero heard him lecture in Athens in 79–78, and found him querulous and ... More

Zeno (6), of Sidon, Stoic  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy

Zeno (6) of *Sidon, Stoic (See stoicism), pupil of *Diodorus(2) Cronus and of *Zeno(2).

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