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tumultus  

Piero Treves and Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Tumultus was a state of emergency decreed by the Roman state when threatened by hostile attack. *Cicero (Phil. 8. 3) states that the ancients had distinguished two types, the tumultus Italicus, a war ... More

Twelve Tables  

Carlos Amunátegui Perelló

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
According to the tradition, during the early Republic (451–450 bce), during the Struggle of the Orders, a commission was set up to make the laws for the Romans. After two years, the ... More

Ulpius, Marcellus, lawyer, mid-2nd cent. CE  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Marcellus Ulpius, a lawyer of the mid-2nd cent. ce, whose family, probably from *Asia Minor, had become Roman citizens under Trajan, and was himself of equestrian rank (see equites). He ... More

viatores  

Piero Treves and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Viatores were attendants on magistrates (see magistracy, roman), one of whose main functions was to summon persons to the magistrate's presence. Thus they might be used, for example, to call senators ... More

vicomagistri  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vicomagistri, officials of a *vicus, which was a miniature body politic, and was entitled to possess property, administer common funds, and appoint officials. These magistri or vicomagistri, who were ... More

vigiles  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Ancient cities made various arrangements for maintaining security at night; bands of night-wardens (nuktophulakes) were more often aimed at the prevention of sedition than the protection of property ... More

vigintisexviri, vigintiviri  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Six boards of minor magistrates at Rome were known by the collective designation vigintisexviri (the Twenty-Six) in the late republic: membership was a precursor to the quaestorship and the beginning ... More

Volusius Maecianus, Lucius  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Lucius Volusius Maecianus, a lawyer of the mid-2nd cent. ce, probably came from *Ostia, where inscriptions recording his career have been found. He became a libellis (secretary for petitions) to ... More

war, rules of  

Jakob Aall Ottesen Larsen and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
These, like much other international law (see law, international), depended on custom and showed a constant conflict between the higher standards of optimistic theory and the harsher measures ... More

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