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Timocharis  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Timocharis, astronomer at *Alexandria (1), made observations between 295 and 272 bce reported by *Ptolemy(4). These record positions of the moon and Venus with respect to fixed stars. He also ... More

transport, wheeled  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The wheel played a prominent role in traction in the ancient Mediterranean lands (contrast its absence in pre-Columbian societies of the Americas). It is more difficult to gauge its economic and ... More

trigonometry  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
There is no ancient term for trigonometry, since it was not counted as a branch of *mathematics, but ancillary to *astronomy, and even there does not pre-date *Hipparchus(3): when *Aristarchus(1) and ... More

Vesuvius  

Edward Togo Salmon and Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vesuvius, the famous volcano on the bay of Naples, rises isolated out of the surrounding plain of *Campania. Its base is some 48 km. (30 mi.) in circumference, its central cone over 1,216 m. (4,000 ... More

veterinary medicine  

Liliane Bodson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Veterinary medicine deals with treatments, cures, and all the other means by which the health of livestock may be preserved or restored. It is rooted in the early management of stock breeding, when ... More

Vettius Valens  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vettius Valens, Greek astrologer from *Antioch(1), wrote (between 152 ce and 162) the Anthologies, an extant nine-book treatise on *astrology, preserving the only major collection of Greek ... More

Vitruvius (Pol(l)io)  

Richard Allan Tomlinson and J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vitruvius (Pol(l)io) (See mamurra), a Roman architect and military engineer, in which capacity he served *Caesar. He built a basilica at *Fanum Fortunae; but his fame rests chiefly on a treatise, De ... More

vivisection  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Squeamishness about the dissection (let alone vivisection) of animals is a mark of much ancient medicine and zoology, and there is no firm evidence for vivisection in those Hippocratic works (see ... More

wind  

Liba Taub

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
In classical times, wind was in some cases understood to be a god, or as being under the influence of a god; it was understood by some to be a phenomenon liable to prediction and/or explanation as a ... More

Xenocrates (2), of Aphrodisias, physician  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Physician of the time of *Nero and the Flavians (54–96 ce).Περὶ τῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τῶν ζῴων ὠφελείας (‘On the uses of human beings and animals’), full of superstitious means of treatment, ... More

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