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W. M. Murray

Cassope, main city of the Cassopaeans, a Thesprotian people (see thesproti) who broke away around 400 bce to become an independent tribal state. An Epidaurian inscription (see epidaurus) ... More


Catherine A. Morgan, Simon Hornblower, and Antony Spawforth

(See also Delphic oracle; Pythian Games). Delphi, one of the four great *panhellenic*sanctuaries (the others are *Isthmia, *Olympia, *Nemea), is on the lower southern slopes of *Parnassus, c.610 m. ... More


W. M. Murray

Ephyra (also Cichyrus: Strabo 7. 7. 5), a city in western Epirus near the mouth of the *Acheron river. Here *Neoptolemus (1) landed on his return from Troy (Pind. Nem. 7. 37–9) and *Odysseus came to ... More


Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Antony Spawforth

Europus (also Dura), on the middle *Euphrates, founded by the *Seleucids as a military colony c.300 bce, and a *polis in the 2nd cent. bce. Its importance is chiefly archaeological: excavations in ... More


H. Kathryn Lomas

Gnathia (mod. Fasano), a Messapian port, 58 km. (36 mi.) south of *Barium, which dominated land and sea communications, handling trade with Greece. It prospered in the Hellenistic period, a phase ... More


Philip de Souza

The earliest man-made harbour facilities in the Mediterranean region were the riverside quays of Mesopotamia and Egypt, for which records go back to at least the second millennium bce. Maritime ... More

Heraclea (2) by Latmus  

Antony Spawforth

Heraclea (2) by Latmus, a city of *Caria allegedly founded by *Endymion, on the slope of Mt. Latmus, c. 25 km. (15½ mi.) east of Miletus; in antiquity it stood at the head of an Aegean gulf gradually ... More

Hippodamus, of Miletus  

Richard Allan Tomlinson and Antony Spawforth

Hippodamus of *Miletus, was the most famous Greek town-planner. He was born probably about 500 bce. Ancient authorities speak of his nemēsis or allocation of sites. Towards the middle of ... More


Hector Catling

Idalium (mod. Dhali), a small inland city of *Cyprus, in a long-populated area (perhaps the ‘Edi'al’ of the Esarhaddon prism), was 16 km. (10 mi.) SSE of Nicosia, on the south side of the ... More


Catherine A. Morgan

Isthmia (sanctuary of *Poseidon), a Corinthian *Panhellenic shrine 16 km. (10 mi.) east of *Corinth, beside the modern Athens–Corinth road. A hippodrome and hero shrine (West Foundation) lie 2 km. ... More