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Ahura Mazdā  

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and W. F. M. Henkelman

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Near East
‘Wise Lord’ or ‘Lord Wisdom’, Iranian supreme deity invoked as wise, benevolent god, creator and upholder of Aṣ̌a (truth, righteousness) in the Avesta (Yasna 31.8). In *Achaemenid ... More

Ai Khanoum  

Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Ai Khanoum, Greek Hellenistic city excavated (1965–78) by the French archaeological delegation in Afghanistan, is situated in the eastern part of *Bactria, at the junction of the river *Oxus (mod. ... More

Akkadian  

Stephanie Dalley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(1) Term used until 1869 for the language now known as *Sumerian. (2) Term used since 1869 for the East Semitic language that is also known by its northern and southern dialects as Assyrian and ... More

Al-Mina  

Jean-François Salles and J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Al-Mina, a port at the mouth of the river *Orontes in Turkey, excavated by Sir Leonard Woolley in 1936–7. It was established as a trading-post (*emporion) by 800 bce and visited by ... More

Albania, Transcaucasian  

David C. Braund

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Albania (Transcaucasian), the land between *Iberia and the *Caspian, to the north of *Media Atropatene: it now lies largely within northern Azerbaijan and Daghestan. Albania comprises an ... More

Alexander (10) Balas  

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Alexander (10) Balas, king of the Seleudid empire (150–145 bce), claiming to be the son of *Antiochus (4) IV, usurped the Seleucid throne after the defeat and death of *Demetrius (10) I near *Antioch ... More

Alexandria (3), 'of the Arachosians'  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Alexandria (3) ‘of the Arachosians’, founded by *Alexander (3) the Great in 329 bce on the strategic site of the *Achaemenid capital of Arachosia (Old Kandahar). Besides a Graeco-Aramaic edict of ... More

Alexandria (4), 'of the Arians'  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East

Alexandria (4) ‘of the Arians’, founded by *Alexander (3) the Great near Herat, on a different site from Artakoana. Important staging-point on route leading to Kandahar and India.

Alexandria (5) Eschate, 'the farthest'  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Alexandria (5) Eschate (‘the farthest’), founded close to Cyreschata (mod. Leninabad/Khodjend) on the Syr-Darya (*Jaxartes), the largest of seven *‘Achaemenid' fortresses seized by ... More

Alexandria (6), 'among the Paropamisadae'  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Alexandria (6) ‘among the Paropamisadae’, founded on the strategic site of Begram, about 80 km. (50 mi.) north of modern Kabul. (Also known as Alexandria under Caucasus, see Arrian Anab. 3. 28. 4 and ... More

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