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Cestius Gallus, Gaius, suffect consul, 42 CE  

Nadav Sharon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
C. Cestius Gallus (d. 67 ce) is believed to have been the son of the consul of 35 ce by the same name (Tac. Ann. 6.31; Cass. Dio 58.25.2). He was appointed suffect consul in 42 ce (CIL VI 2015),1 and ... More

circumcision  

Martin Goodman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Circumcision of male genitalia was widely practised in the ancient near east, as Herodotus (2.104) was aware. In general both Greeks and Romans found the custom repulsive and ridiculous, ... More

conversion, Jewish  

Matthew Thiessen

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
There is little evidence of conversion to Israelite religion or Judaism in Jewish scriptures. For instance, while later rabbis understood the book of Ruth to portray the conversion of Ruth ... More

Dead Sea Scrolls  

Martin Goodman

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Documents made of leather and papyrus, and, in one case, of copper, found between 1947 and 1956 in caves near Qumran by the Dead Sea. The scrolls, written by Jews, are mostly in Hebrew and ... More

Eleutheropolis  

Dov Gera

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Eleutheropolis (Arabic Beit Jibrin; Hebrew Beth Govrin, Beit Guvrin) is situated in Judea’s Shephelah on the southwesterly road from Jerusalem to Ascalon. This area was known as Idumaea in the ... More

epic, biblical  

Martin J. Brooke

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A late antique genre in which material from the Bible is versified in hexameters. Six major texts survive, the earliest being (1) the Evangeliorum libri IV of *Iuvencus. (2) The Heptateuchos of ... More

Essenes  

Martin Goodman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Jewish religious group known to have flourished in Judaea in the 1st cent. ce. The doctrines and customs of the Essenes were described in detail by *Josephus and *Philon (4), and in a short notice by ... More

Eupolemus, fl. c. 150 BCE  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Eupolemus (fl. c. 150 bce), a Hellenized Jewish historian from Palestine, wrote (in Greek) On the Kings in Judaea, a popular history of the Jews in a rhetorical style; fragments are quoted ... More

Ezekiel  

Andrew Brown

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Author of the Exagoge, a tragedy in Greek about Moses and the escape of the Israelites from Egypt. Nothing is known of his life, but he must have been a Hellenized Jew active between the ... More

Gaius (1), 'Caligula', Roman emperor, 12–41 CE  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon, Barbara Levick, and Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Gaius (1) the emperor, ‘Caligula’ (Gaius Iulius Caesar Germanicus, (12–41 ce), son of Germanicus (see iulius caesar, germanicus) and *Agrippina the Elder, born at *Antium (31 August). In 14–16 he was ... More

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