James Maxwell Ross Cormack and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond
Alan Johnston and Virginia Randolph Grace
The amphora is one of the most versatile and long-lived pot shapes. A two-handled jar (amphi-phoreus, ‘carried on both sides’), it can vary enormously in size, detail of shape, and manner of decoration. Broad-mouthed jars, plain or decorated, were generally known as kadoi or stamnoi in antiquity. Plain or part-decorated jars, more often termed amphoreus, were used widely for storage and transport; we see them often in vase scenes, and literary and epigraphic texts fill out the picture. The average capacity of Classical and Hellenistic jars is 20–25 lt. (4½–5½ gal.); earlier types are regularly larger (up to 95 lt. (21 gal.)), betraying their derivation from the static storage pithos. Early transport amphorae (late 8th cent., esp. Attic and Corinthian) probably contained oil; later, wine becomes the major commodity; jars supplement, then supplant skins. Other commodities which we know to have been transported in amphorae include pitch and dried fish. Stoppers were of various material, though few survive; clay is best attested, both as basic material and sealer, though resin was also used for the latter purpose.
Andrew F. Stewart
According to Pausanias (1. 8. 5), he made the first bronze group of the tyrannicides Harmodius and *Aristogiton for the Athenian agora; Pliny (HN 34. 70) dates it to 510. *Xerxes I took it to Persia in 480, but the Athenians soon asked *Critius to replace it. *Alexander (3) the Great, *Seleucus (1) I, or *Antiochus (1) I returned it, and thereafter it stood beside Critius' group. Antenor's only extant work is the monumental korē (Acropolis Museum 681) dedicated by the potter Nearchus; the korai of the east pediment of the temple of Apollo at *Delphi are stylistically similar, and perhaps attributable to his workshop.
Frank William Walbank and Andrew F. Stewart
Antigonus (4) of Carystus (fl. c. 240 BCE), writer and bronzeworker, lived at Athens and (apparently) at *Pergamum.
An inferior anecdotal collection survives: (a) Ἱστοριῶν παραδόξων συναγωγή, collection of paradoxical stories (see
A reliable biographer (see
The Antikythera Mechanism (National Archaeological Museum, Athens, inv. X 15087) was a Hellenistic gearwork device for displaying astronomical and chronological functions. Substantial but highly corroded remains of the instrument were recovered from an ancient shipwreck (see Figure 1).
The most complex scientific instrument to have survived from antiquity, it resembled the sphaerae or planetaria described by Cicero (1) and other Greco-Roman authors. The date of its construction is in dispute but must have been earlier than the middle of the 1st century
D. Graham J. Shipley
Antissa, small coastal *polis in NW *Lesbos; birthplace of the poet *Terpander. A bronze age site has been explored; the Classical town originated in the early geometric period. Three apsidal buildings (possibly temples), stretches of a probable city wall, and remains of a harbour mole have been identified. The Mytileneans strengthened the defences during their revolt of 428