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  • Greek Material Culture: Bronze Age x
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Dionysius (13), of Sinope, Middle Comedy poet  

Online publication date:
Mar 2016

Dionysius (13) of Sinope, Middle (?) Comedy poet (see comedy (Greek), Middle). The learned cook provides humour in one piece (fr. 2).

fortifications, Greek  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Eric William Marsden, and Richard Allan Tomlinson

In the Aegean area small towns with perimeter walls appear early in the bronze age (Khalandriani). More usual is the fortified acropolis, increasingly developed in the troubled times of the late ... More

gems  

Frederick Norman Pryce, David Edward Eichholz, and Michael Vickers

Precious stones were valued in antiquity as possessing magical and medicinal virtues, as ornaments, and as seals when engraved with a device. Such engravings (intaglios) in soft media like steatite ... More

Gla  

O. T. P. K. Dickinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Gla (ancient name unknown), a rocky outcrop at the NE end of Lake *Copais in *Boeotia, was surrounded by a massive fortification wall, enclosing some 20 ha., late in the 14th cent. bce. ... More

Greece, prehistory and history  

Paul Halstead, O. T. P. K. Dickinson, Simon Hornblower, and Antony Spawforth

The stone age is divided into the palaeolithic (to c.9000 bce), mesolithic (c.9000–7000 bce) and neolithic (7th–4th millennia bce); *metallurgy began during the neolithic, before the conventional ... More

horse- and chariot-races  

John Kinloch Anderson

In the funeral games for *Patroclus the chariot-race is the premier event (Hom.Il. 23. 262–538). The heroes drive two-horse chariots normally used in battle over an improvised cross-country course, ... More

horses  

John Kinloch Anderson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The present state of the evidence indicates that the horse was domesticated on the Ukrainian steppe during the neolithic period. It was known in *Mesopotamia during the third millennium bce and early ... More

Iolcus  

O. T. P. K. Dickinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Historical Iolcus (mod. Volos) is situated on the northern shore of the bay of Volos, sheltered by Mt. *Pelion, but there is strong reason to believe that Mycenaean Iolcus centred on the site of ... More

ivory  

John Boardman and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ivory (ἐλέφας, ebur), a material derived from the tusk of the Asiatic or African *elephant or the tooth of the hippopotamus. Capable of being carved in the round, or in relief, used as inlay, as a ... More

land division, Greek  

Robin Osborne

Traces of regular division of settlement space have been found even in Dark-Age Zagora on *Andros. Some early Greek colonies (see colonization, greek), notably *Megara Hyblaea, show a degree of ... More

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