Albert Brian Bosworth
Agis III, king of Sparta (338–?330
Stephen Hodkinson and Antony Spawforth
P. J. Rhodes
Henry Dickinson Westlake and P. J. Rhodes
Alcidas, Spartan commander in the early part of the *Peloponnesian War, failed to help *Mytilene in its revolt from Athens 428–7 and treated prisoners brutally (Thuc. 3. 17, 29–33) so creating doubts about Sparta's role as ‘liberator’ (the role: Thuc. 2. 8). He reappears as commander at *Corcyra, though with *Brasidas as ‘adviser’ (3. 69–80); and finally as a *founder of *Heraclea (4) in Trachis, perhaps chosen because of his religiously appropriate name (Alcides = *Heracles), though *Thucydides (2) characteristically does not say so. But the colony failed, not least because of Spartan harshness—another hit at Alcidas (Thuc. 3. 92–3, echoing 3. 32. 2, cf. 5. 52; Thucydides' repeated language makes the point that behaviour like Alcidas' damaged Sparta's image).