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betrothal, Greek  

Gordon Willis Williams and Mark Golden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Greek betrothal, ἐγγύη, was a contract between two men, the groom and the bride's father (or other κύριος, ‘controller’, male representative at law) which established that a union was a fully valid ... More

betrothal, Roman sponsalia  

Gordon Willis Williams and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the republic consisted of reciprocal sponsiones, and breach-of-promise actions (in the form of actions for damages) existed. The movement of classical Roman law was in the direction of ... More

body  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The history of the body is a discipline which emerged in the 1980s; it questions the extent to which the body is “natural,” and asks whether all societies have experienced the body in the ... More

Boeo  

Ken Dowden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Boeo, short form of a woman's name (based on ‘Boeotian’ ?).(1) Legendary Delphian (see delphi) author of a *hymn mentioning *Hyperboreans and the prophet *Olen (Pausanias 10. 5. 7–8).(2) Either Boeo ... More

breast-feeding  

Gillian Clark

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Breast-feeding was a proof of maternal devotion and, according to some philosophers, a good woman's duty (there is a detailed discussion in Gell.NA 12. 1). It was acknowledged to be ... More

chastity, Christian  

Christopher Rowland

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Christian Celibacy and asceticism are endemic to Christianity and are typical of the distinctive outlook on life which runs throughout much of early Christian literature. The practice of holiness, ... More

chastity, pre-Christian  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Chastity was not recommended in classical Greek *medicine before *Soranus. In pagan religion, certain goddesses chose to remain virgins (e.g. *Hestia/*Vesta,*Artemis/*Diana) and some priestesses—nor ... More

childbirth  

Gillian Clark

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Childbirth was generally the concern of women, either family and neighbours or experienced *midwives who were sometimes ranked as doctors, but male doctors expected to be called in for difficult ... More

children  

Robert Garland

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In Greece the decision whether to raise a child normally rested with the father except in *Sparta where ‘elders of the tribes’ were required to pronounce upon its fitness to live (Plut.Lyc. 16. 1). ... More

contraception  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Contraception played a minor role in Hippocratic medicine, where the emphasis was rather on helping women to conceive. (See hippocrates(2).) The exception is a substance called ‘misy’, possibly ... More

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