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aristocracy, attitudes to  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Élites in Greek and Roman societies were identified in a number of ways, of which the most important and inclusive was the sharing in the appreciation, discussion, and propagation of the cultural ... More

artisans and craftsmen  

Antony Spawforth

In Greece the prejudices of the (largely landowning) citizen-élites against the activities of ‘mechanics’ (banausoi), often slaves, *freedmen, or *metics, subjected artisans to formal handicaps in ... More

Ateste  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ateste (mod. Este) has given its name to one of the principal iron age cultures of northern Italy, lasting from the 9th cent. bce until its peaceful annexation by Rome in 184 bce. Until ce ... More

baking, Roman  

Jared T. Benton

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The earliest Roman bakers almost certainly made bread for their own households, but not for sale to the public. Pliny the Elder tells us in his Natural History (18.28) that among the quirites of ... More

banks  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
In antiquity banks supplied a selection of the services familiar from their modern counterparts. None the less, the essential banking function, receipt of deposits which might then be lent at ... More

bee-keeping  

John Ellis Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bee-keeping had the same importance for antiquity that sugar production has now. Honey-gathering preceded the culture of bees which began perhaps in the mesolithic period. The evidence for ... More

booty  

Michel Austin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
‘It is a law established for all time among all men that when a city is taken in war, the persons and the property of its inhabitants belong to the captors’ (Xen.Cyr. 7. 5. 73). This universal ... More

bribery, Greek  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Much Greek vocabulary for bribery is neutral (‘persuade by gifts/money’, ‘receiving gifts’), although pejorative terms like ‘gift-swallowing’ are found as early as Hesiod (Op. 37 ff.). ... More

byssus  

J. P. Wild

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Byssus(βύσσος, prob. = Akkad. būṣu, Hebrew būṣ), a conspicuously fine fibre, normally of plant origin. Aeschylus (Sept.1039; Pers. 125) mentions fine tunics of βύσσος, probably *linen (flax) in this ... More

capitalism  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Capitalism is a term freighted with heavy ideological baggage. For economists and historians working within a Marxist tradition (see marxism and classical antiquity) it has a specific reference to an ... More

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