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wages  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Wages, payment in cash or kind in return for labour services, are attested as early as the *thētes ... More

water  

Johan Harm Croon and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Water, in the mostly arid Mediterranean climate, by its local availability shaped patterns of settlement and, as erratic rainfall, determined harvest-fluctuations and food-shortages (see famine; food ... More

wealth, attitudes to  

John Davies

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Classical societies developed a range of responses to the universal ambition of individuals to amass property and possessions. One extreme response, characteristic of societies where the wealthy had ... More

wealth, Roman attitudes towards  

Gloria Vivenza and Neville Morley

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Roman attitudes to wealth were complex and sometimes ambivalent. Wealth was an essential basis for political and social life, but also a topic of extensive debate, which focused on the ... More

wine, Greek and Roman  

Jeremy Paterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The grape vine, which grows naturally in the highlands between the 10° C and 20° C annual isotherms (approximately between 30° and 50° north), had appeared in a cultivated form (vitis vinifera ... More

wool  

J. P. Wild

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Wool (ἔριονlana), the principal textile fibre of the Mediterranean region, was taken from the coat of the European domestic sheep, descendant of the wild mouflon of western Asia. (Goat- and ... More

zeugitai  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zeugitai (from zeugos, ‘yoke’), at Athens, Solon's third property class, said (perhaps by false analogy with *pentakosiomedimnoi) to comprise men whose land yielded between 200 and 300 ... More

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