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trade, Roman  

Jeremy Paterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The central issue for historians has long been, and remains, how to characterize properly the scale and importance of trade and commerce in the overall economy of the Roman empire. Some seek to ... More

traders  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Traders in the ancient Mediterranean relied heavily on sea transport, reflecting terrain and the location of communities. *Plato(1) describes the Greeks as huddled around the sea ‘like ants and frogs ... More

travel  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Levels of personal mobility varied greatly in the ancient Mediterranean. Certain categories of individual were regarded as mobile throughout: the emporos (*trader) was a recognizable figure already ... More

tribuni aerarii  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tribuni aerarii, originally treasury officials concerned with the collection of *tributum and its disbursement as military *stipendium. The office disappeared, but the title may have been ... More

tribute lists, Athenian  

Malcolm F. McGregor and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tribute lists (Athenian), records of the aparchai (first-fruits; pl. of *aparchē) of one-sixtieth given as an offering to *Athena from the tribute paid by the members of the *Delian League after the ... More

tributum  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tributum was a direct tax paid by individuals to the Roman state. Until 167 bce citizens of Rome were liable to pay a tributum which was in principle an extraordinary (in contrast to the regular ... More

trittyes, 'thirds'  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Trittyes (‘thirds’), divisions both of the four old and of the ten new tribes at Athens. Little is known of the old trittyes; an ancient guess that they were identical with the *phratries ... More

vectigal  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vectigal meant primarily revenue derived from public land, mines, saltworks, etc., and in general, rents derived from state property. Such sources provided the basic revenues of the early republic, ... More

via Salaria  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Via Salaria, an old-established route which facilitated the salt trade from the *Tiber mouth. It ran north-east from Rome to *Reate in the Sabine country. Later extensions, ... More

villa  

David J. Mattingly

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Villa was the Latin word for a rural dwelling associated with an estate, and ranging in character from functional farms to the luxurious country seats of the élite (Varro, Rust. 1. 11. 1–12. 4; 3. 2. ... More

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