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tribute lists, Athenian  

Malcolm F. McGregor and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tribute lists (Athenian), records of the aparchai (first-fruits; pl. of *aparchē) of one-sixtieth given as an offering to *Athena from the tribute paid by the members of the *Delian League after the ... More

tributum  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tributum was a direct tax paid by individuals to the Roman state. Until 167 bce citizens of Rome were liable to pay a tributum which was in principle an extraordinary (in contrast to the regular ... More

trittyes, 'thirds'  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Trittyes (‘thirds’), divisions both of the four old and of the ten new tribes at Athens. Little is known of the old trittyes; an ancient guess that they were identical with the *phratries ... More

vectigal  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vectigal meant primarily revenue derived from public land, mines, saltworks, etc., and in general, rents derived from state property. Such sources provided the basic revenues of the early republic, ... More

via Salaria  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Via Salaria, an old-established route which facilitated the salt trade from the *Tiber mouth. It ran north-east from Rome to *Reate in the Sabine country. Later extensions, ... More

villa  

David J. Mattingly

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Villa was the Latin word for a rural dwelling associated with an estate, and ranging in character from functional farms to the luxurious country seats of the élite (Varro, Rust. 1. 11. 1–12. 4; 3. 2. ... More

wages  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Wages, payment in cash or kind in return for labour services, are attested as early as the *thētes ... More

water  

Johan Harm Croon and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Water, in the mostly arid Mediterranean climate, by its local availability shaped patterns of settlement and, as erratic rainfall, determined harvest-fluctuations and food-shortages (see famine; food ... More

wealth, attitudes to  

John Davies

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Classical societies developed a range of responses to the universal ambition of individuals to amass property and possessions. One extreme response, characteristic of societies where the wealthy had ... More

wine, Greek and Roman  

Jeremy Paterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The grape vine, which grows naturally in the highlands between the 10° C and 20° C annual isotherms (approximately between 30° and 50° north), had appeared in a cultivated form (vitis vinifera ... More

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