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stipendium  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
S tipendium denoted a cash payment and later a permanent tax; it also meant the regular cash payment received by soldiers at the end of the campaigning season, and consequently came to mean a period ... More

symmoria  

Friedrich M. Heichelheim and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Symmoria (‘partnership’), in Athens a group of men liable for payment of the tax called *eisphora or for the *liturgy of the *trierarchy. In 378/7 bce all payers of eisphora were organized in ... More

tamiai  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Tamiai means ‘treasurers’. In Athens the most important officials with this title were the treasurers of Athena. They were ten in number, appointed annually by lot, one from each of the ten *phylai. ... More

textile production  

Helen King and J. P. Wild

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Spinning and weaving held considerable symbolic and economic importance for women. In the *Gortyn Law Code (3. 17) a woman who was widowed or divorced could keep half of what she had woven ... More

theōrika  

Friedrich M. Heichelheim and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Theōrika, grants paid by the state to the citizens of Athens to enable them to attend the theatre at the major festivals. Attributions of these grants to *Pericles(1) (who introduced payment for ... More

thētes  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Thētes, hired labourers, the lowest class of free men in a Greek state. At Athens, after *Solon, the lowest of the four property classes, said (perhaps by false analogy with *pentakosiomedimnoi) to ... More

Thoricus  

John Ellis Jones

Thoricus, coastal *deme of SE *Attica, now a bare twin-peaked hill (Velatouri) north of modern Laurion. In legend, one of King *Cecrops' twelve Attic townships, home of the hunter king *Cephalus, and ... More

timber  

Eugene N. Borza

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Was a valuable economic product in Greece and Rome. Many Mediterranean lands were forested in ancient times, but these timber stands were drastically reduced by human exploitation and by the grazing ... More

tin  

Oliver Davies and David William John Gill

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Combined with copper is used to make the alloy of *bronze. Its addition to copper reduces the melting-point of the alloy, and also gives a product stronger than copper. A 4th-cent. bce inscription ... More

trade, Greek  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Exchange in some form has probably existed since the emergence of the first properly human social groups. Trade, whether local, regional, interregional or international, is a much later development. ... More

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