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Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Abortion was controversial in antiquity. Doctors taking the Hippocratic Oath (see hippocrates (2)) swore not to administer abortifacients, but other Hippocratic texts suggest that prostitutes (see ... More


Jonathan Coulston

Evidence for Greek and Roman artillery comes from the surviving technical treatises, incidental historical and subliterary references, and, most importantly, finds of both machine-fittings and ... More

astronomical instruments  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Although the introduction of an astronomical instrument (the gnomon, an upright stick for measuring shadow-lengths) is credited to *Anaximander in the 6th cent. bce, reliable information on the form ... More


Ernst Badian and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Canals (fossae, διώρυγες). Drainage and *irrigation canals were widely used in antiquity. The oldest, in Iraq, date to the sixth millennium bce, while in *Egypt they were in use from the fourth ... More


G. J. Toomer and Serafina Cuomo

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The usual instrument for telling time in antiquity was the sundial. This employed the shadow of a pointer (γνώμων) cast on a plane, spherical, or conical surface marked with lines indicating the ... More


J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Many ancient medical authorities believed that therapeutic medicine had its origins in the gradual discovery of connections between health and the regulation of one's day-to-day life ... More


Paul Cartledge and Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The Mediterranean is a zone of intense earthquake activity because the plates carrying Africa and Europe are slowly moving together, according to the theory of plate tectonics. Notable earthquakes in ... More


Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Glass (ὕαλος (also 'rock crystal'), vitrum). The art of producing a vitreous surface on stone, powdered quartz (faience), or clay was known in pre-dynastic Egypt and passed to Crete during the second ... More


Nicholas Purcell

Tall monuments which might function as navigational marks were an early feature of ancient harbour-architecture (Archaic examples are known on *Thasos). The idea became celebrated with the building ... More

metallurgy, Greek  

Jonathan Edmondson

Metallurgy covers all processes involving native metal or metallic ores after mining (concentration, smelting, refining) up to the production of artefacts. Understanding these depends less on ... More