J. F. Healey
Aramaic, a *Semitic language, was used in the ancient near east from early in the 1st millennium
T. G. Wilfong
Coptic is the latest phase of the ancient Egyptian language, written in an alphabet partly derived from Greek and incorporating Greek vocabulary. Strongly associated with Christianity in Egypt, Coptic preserves a wide range of original and translated Christian literature as well as an important body of documentary texts of the later Roman, Byzantine, and early Islamic periods.
Cuneiform is wedge-shaped writing thought to have developed from impressions of clay tokens and incised pictograms by impressing the triangular cross-section of a reed upon clay. First used for *Sumerian, it was adopted and adapted for proto-Elamite, *Akkadian, Hurrian, Hittite, Urartian (see