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  • Greek Material Culture: Classical and Hellenistic x
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athletics, Greek  

Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
At the core of Greek athletics was an individual's hard physical struggle in order to gain victory over an opponent; hence, it included not only (as ‘athletics’ implies nowadays) track and ... More


Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A Greek term for column-shafts carved in the form of draped women; male equivalents were called Atlantides (see atlas). Apparently named after Caryae in *Laconia, where virgins danced to *Artemis ... More


Ludwig Alfred Moritz

Dicing with six-sided dice (κύβοι, tesserae) or four-sided knucklebones (ἀστράγαλοι, tali; natural or manufactured from e.g. ivory) was a popular amusement in both Greece and Rome, either ... More


Theodore Fyfe, Richard Ernest Wycherley, and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ancient name for a shrine identified by most (but not all) scholars with the third outstanding building on the Athenian Acropolis, begun in 421 bce and finished, after a lapse, in 407 bce; ... More


Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In Greek cities, the gymnasium originated as a place of exercise for the citizens specifically to fit the *epheboi for the rigours of service as *hoplites. At first no more than an open space, with a ... More


Philip de Souza

The earliest man-made harbour facilities in the Mediterranean region were the riverside quays of Mesopotamia and Egypt, for which records go back to at least the second millennium bce. Maritime ... More


Catherine A. Morgan

Isthmia (sanctuary of *Poseidon), a Corinthian *Panhellenic shrine 16 km. (10 mi.) east of *Corinth, beside the modern Athens–Corinth road. A hippodrome and hero shrine (West Foundation) lie 2 km. ... More


Nicholas Purcell

Tall monuments which might function as navigational marks were an early feature of ancient harbour-architecture (Archaic examples are known on *Thasos). The idea became celebrated with the building ... More

metallurgy, Greek  

Jonathan Edmondson

Metallurgy covers all processes involving native metal or metallic ores after mining (concentration, smelting, refining) up to the production of artefacts. Understanding these depends less on ... More


Catherine A. Morgan, Simon Hornblower, and Antony Spawforth

Olympia, *panhellenic sanctuary of *Zeus located in hill country beside the river *Alpheus in *Elis. There is evidence of extensive prehistoric settlement in the vicinity ... More