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baths  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Baths, one of the most characteristic and widely distributed types of Roman buildings, had their origins in the Greek world where public baths were common from at least the 4th cent. bce. Surviving ... More

Bede (Beda Venerabilis), c. 673–735 CE  

Scott DeGregorio

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Bede (Beda Venerabilis) was Anglo-Saxon England’s most prolific Latin writer, and indeed one of the most distinguished authors of the early Middle Ages. At the end of his most celebrated work, ... More

bee-keeping  

John Ellis Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bee-keeping had the same importance for antiquity that sugar production has now. Honey-gathering preceded the culture of bees which began perhaps in the mesolithic period. The evidence for ... More

Boeotia and Boeotian Confederacy  

John Buckler and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Boeotia was a region in central Greece, bounded in the north by *Phocis and Opuntian *Locris. The east faces the Euboean Gulf, and Mts. Parnes and Cithaeron form the southern boundary with Attica. On ... More

Brundisium  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Brundisium (mod. Brindisi), a *Messapian city on the Adriatic coast, and an important harbour. Source-traditions of foundation by *Diomedes (2) or Phalanthus, or of Cretan colonists, probably do not ... More

Cadmus  

A. Schachter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Legendary Phoenician founder of Boeotian *Thebes (1), whose origins are still disputed: Phoenicia, Egypt, Mycenaean Greece, Archaic Greece, have all been proposed (see bibliog. below).In *Homer, he ... More

calendar, Roman  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Simon Price

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The original Roman calendar supposedly consisted of ten months only, the later March–December, and would therefore have had an uncounted gap in the winter, between years (cf. Ov. Fast. 1. 27–44, with ... More

camels  

John Kinloch Anderson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Camels, long domesticated in Arabia and neighbouring lands, were unfamiliar in Anatolia in 546 bce when *Cyrus (1)'s baggage-camels terrified the Lydian horses (Hdt. 1. 80). These may have been ... More

canals  

Ernst Badian and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Canals (fossae, διώρυγες). Drainage and *irrigation canals were widely used in antiquity. The oldest, in Iraq, date to the sixth millennium bce, while in *Egypt they were in use from the fourth ... More

Carmen arvale  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Hymn sung during the sacrifice to *Dea Dia by the *fratres arvales (arval brethren). Although only recorded in an inscriptional copy of ce 218 (A. Gordon, Album of Dated Latin Inscriptions ... More

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