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Attila  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Attila, king of the *Huns (435/440–453 ce), at first ruled jointly with his brother Bleda whom he murdered in 445. Member of a dynasty which had united previously separate Hunnic groups ... More

Aulis  

John Buckler

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Small Greek city near *Tanagra, on a rocky peninsula between two bays. Its most famous monument is the temple of Artemis and its neighbouring buildings. The best harbour in northern *Boeotia, Aulis ... More

Bactria  

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Enormous region lying (roughly) between the *Oxus (Amu-Darya) to the north and the Hindu Kush to the south; the term occasionally also includes Sogdiana to the north (Tadjikistan/Uzbekistan). The ... More

barbarian  

Thomas E. J. Wiedemann

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Social groups frequently assert their cohesiveness by emphasizing the differences between themselves and ‘outsiders’. Individuals belong to a range of groups, and which they choose to emphasize will ... More

baths  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Baths, one of the most characteristic and widely distributed types of Roman buildings, had their origins in the Greek world where public baths were common from at least the 4th cent. bce. Surviving ... More

Bede (Beda Venerabilis), c. 673–735 CE  

Scott DeGregorio

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Bede (Beda Venerabilis) was Anglo-Saxon England’s most prolific Latin writer, and indeed one of the most distinguished authors of the early Middle Ages. At the end of his most celebrated work, ... More

bee-keeping  

John Ellis Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bee-keeping had the same importance for antiquity that sugar production has now. Honey-gathering preceded the culture of bees which began perhaps in the mesolithic period. The evidence for ... More

Ben-Hur, reception of  

Jon Solomon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Reception
Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ, a historical romance novel set in 1st-century Judea and Antioch, was written by Lew Wallace (1827–1905) and published by Harper & Brothers in 1880. It has generated ... More

Boeotia and Boeotian Confederacy  

John Buckler and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Boeotia was a region in central Greece, bounded in the north by *Phocis and Opuntian *Locris. The east faces the Euboean Gulf, and Mts. Parnes and Cithaeron form the southern boundary with Attica. On ... More

Brundisium  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Brundisium (mod. Brindisi), a *Messapian city on the Adriatic coast, and an important harbour. Source-traditions of foundation by *Diomedes (2) or Phalanthus, or of Cretan colonists, probably do not ... More

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