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Aquitania  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A name originally applied to the area bounded by the Garonne, the Pyrenees, and the bay of Biscay. The Aquitani are described as differing from the other Gauls in speech, customs, and physique, and ... More

Aramaic  

J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aramaic, a *Semitic language, was used in the ancient near east from early in the 1st millennium bce and through the Roman period. Originating in upper Mesopotamia, it is first known ... More

Ara Pacis  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ara Pacis, a monumental altar erected in the northern *Campus Martius near the via Lata (Corso), considered one of the major products of Augustan public art. It was voted in 13 bce by the senate, as ... More

archontes  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Archontes (‘rulers’), the general Greek term for all holders of office in a state. But the word was frequently used as the title of a particular office, originally at least the highest office of the ... More

artillery  

Jonathan Coulston

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Evidence for Greek and Roman artillery comes from the surviving technical treatises, incidental historical and subliterary references, and, most importantly, finds of both machine-fittings and ... More

asceticism  

Philip Rousseau and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Christianity
“Discipline” is the common translation of the Greek noun askêsis. Its English derivative “asceticism” denotes a sustained routine of abstinence, more severe than the occasional self-denial ... More

astronomical instruments  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Although the introduction of an astronomical instrument (the gnomon, an upright stick for measuring shadow-lengths) is credited to *Anaximander in the 6th cent. bce, reliable information on the form ... More

athletics, Greek  

Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
At the core of Greek athletics was an individual's hard physical struggle in order to gain victory over an opponent; hence, it included not only (as ‘athletics’ implies nowadays) track and ... More

athletics, Roman  

Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
At Rome colourful *circus spectacles (especially chariot-racing) and *ball games were the most popular sporting activities. But Augustus promoted traditional athletics, staging athletics ... More

atomism  

Catherine Osborne

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Atomism, a term used of theories that posit the existence of small indivisible particles as the ultimate components of matter. The Greek term atomon, used by some ancient philosophers to ... More

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