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trigonometry  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
There is no ancient term for trigonometry, since it was not counted as a branch of *mathematics, but ancillary to *astronomy, and even there does not pre-date *Hipparchus(3): when *Aristarchus(1) and ... More

Tullius Cicero, Marcus, life, the famous orator Cicero  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and M. T. Griffin

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The first of two sons of a rich and well-connected eques (see equites, Origins and republic) of *Arpinum, he was born on 3 January 106 bce, the year following the first consulship of C. *Marius(1), ... More

Tullius Cicero, Marcus, letters, the famous orator Cicero  

Jonathan G. F. Powell

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Cicero's surviving correspondence is an invaluable collection of evidence for his biography, for the history of the time, and for Roman social life. The sixteen books Ad familiares were ... More

Valens, Roman emperor, 364–78 CE  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Valens, Roman emperor (364–78 ce), the younger brother of *Valentinian I, who proclaimed him emperor of the eastern empire. He lacked his brother's military ability and forceful ... More

venationes  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
‘Hunts’, involving the slaughter of *animals, especially fierce ones, by other animals or human bestiarii (fighters of wild beasts)—and sometimes of criminals by animals, see below—were a major ... More

via Flaminia  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Via Flaminia, the great northern highway of Italy, built 220 bce by C. *Flaminius (1), when censor (Livy, Epit.20; reject Strabo 5. 217). It was 334 km. (209 mi.) long from Rome by way of *Narnia, ... More

vicomagistri  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vicomagistri, officials of a *vicus, which was a miniature body politic, and was entitled to possess property, administer common funds, and appoint officials. These magistri or vicomagistri, who were ... More

vis  

Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Latin word, means neutrally ‘force’ and pejoratively ‘violence’. It is the latter sense that is treated here. For Greece see under violence.(a) Political Violence. Apart from the major non-violent ... More

vivisection  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Squeamishness about the dissection (let alone vivisection) of animals is a mark of much ancient medicine and zoology, and there is no firm evidence for vivisection in those Hippocratic works (see ... More

votum  

H. S. Versnel

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A vow. Both Greeks and Romans habitually made promises to gods, in order to persuade them to grant a favour stipulated in advance. If the gods fulfilled their part, the vow-maker fell under the ... More

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