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Themistocles, Athenian politician, c. 524–459 BCE  

Andrew Robert Burn and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Themistocles (c. 524–459 bce), Athenian politician, was a member of the ancient Lycomid family but by a non-Athenian mother. *Herodotus(1)'s informants accused him of corruption and said that in 480 ... More

theurgy  

Anne Sheppard

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Theurgy was a form of pagan religious *magic associated with the *Chaldaean Oracles and taken up by the later Neoplatonists. It covered a range of magical practices, from rain-making and cures to ... More

topos  

Glenn W. Most and Gian Biagio Conte

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Topos, a standard form of rhetorical argumentation or a variably expressible literary commonplace.In classical rhetoric, inventio aids the orator to find elements of persuasion: τόποι or loci are ... More

tribute lists, Athenian  

Malcolm F. McGregor and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tribute lists (Athenian), records of the aparchai (first-fruits; pl. of *aparchē) of one-sixtieth given as an offering to *Athena from the tribute paid by the members of the *Delian League after the ... More

trigonometry  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
There is no ancient term for trigonometry, since it was not counted as a branch of *mathematics, but ancillary to *astronomy, and even there does not pre-date *Hipparchus(3): when *Aristarchus(1) and ... More

Tullius Cicero, Marcus, life, the famous orator Cicero  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and M. T. Griffin

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The first of two sons of a rich and well-connected eques (see equites, Origins and republic) of *Arpinum, he was born on 3 January 106 bce, the year following the first consulship of C. *Marius(1), ... More

Tullius Cicero, Marcus, letters, the famous orator Cicero  

Jonathan G. F. Powell

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Cicero's surviving correspondence is an invaluable collection of evidence for his biography, for the history of the time, and for Roman social life. The sixteen books Ad familiares were ... More

Umbrian language  

Benjamin Fortson

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Subject:
Linguistics
Umbrian was the language of Sabellic populations in central Italy, including Umbria (see Umbrians) and neighbouring areas to the south that were occupied by the Volsci, Marsi, and Sabini. The bulk of ... More

Valens, Roman emperor, 364–78 CE  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Valens, Roman emperor (364–78 ce), the younger brother of *Valentinian I, who proclaimed him emperor of the eastern empire. He lacked his brother's military ability and forceful ... More

venationes  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
‘Hunts’, involving the slaughter of *animals, especially fierce ones, by other animals or human bestiarii (fighters of wild beasts)—and sometimes of criminals by animals, see below—were a major ... More

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