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abacus  

William David Ross and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Abacus (ἄβαξ, ἀβάκιον), a counting-board, the usual aid to reckoning in antiquity. The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans alike used a board with vertical columns, on which (working from right ... More

abortion  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Abortion was controversial in antiquity. Doctors taking the Hippocratic Oath (see hippocrates (2)) swore not to administer abortifacients, but other Hippocratic texts suggest that prostitutes (see ... More

acoustics  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
5th-cent. theories about sound fall into two groups. Most though not all non-Pythagorean Presocratics were concerned primarily with the process of hearing (see especially Theophr. Sens.; ... More

Adrastus (2), of Aphrodisias, Peripatetic philosopher, 2nd cent. CE  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
RE, of Aphrodisias, *Peripatetic philosopher (2nd cent. ce). His influential writings included commentaries on the order of *Aristotle's works (mainly philological); on Nicomachean Ethics and ... More

Aëtius (2), of Amida, physician, fl. c. 530–560 CE  

John Scarborough

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In *Alexandria (1) and Constantinople. He wrote an extant medical encyclopaedia, called the Tetrabiblon from its division into four sections. Beginning with a summary of drug theory (see ... More

Agathinus, Spartan doctor, 1st cent. CE  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Agathinus (Claudius Agathinus) a Spartandoctor of the 1st cent. CE, associated with the medical sect of the *Pneumatists and by at least one ancient source with the establishment of an ... More

agricultural writers  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Agricultural manuals, written by practising landowners, flourished at Rome from M. *Porcius Cato (1) (c.160 bce) to *Palladius (c.Mid 5th cent. ce), enjoying higher status than other technical ... More

Albinus (2), writer on music, geometry, and dialectic  

Edward Courtney and R. A. Kaster

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Albinus (2) writer on music, geometry, and dialectic, probably identical with Ceionius Rufius Albinus (PLRE 1 ‘Albinus’ 14), the consul of ce 335, and perhaps with the poet of works ... More

alchemy  

R. Halleux

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Of ancient texts on Greek alchemy there survive two papyri, three vast corpora of differing date and content, and a few isolated treatises. (a) Papyrus X from Leiden and the Stockholm papyrus can be ... More

Alexander (15) Philalethes, 'Truth-lover', physician, fl. later 1st cent. BCE?  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alexander (15) Philalethes (‘Truth-lover’), a physician (fl. later 1st cent. bce?), succeeded *Zeuxis (3) as leader of the Asian branch of *Herophilus's ‘school’. Alexander's views on digestion, on ... More

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