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Akkadian  

Stephanie Dalley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(1) Term used until 1869 for the language now known as *Sumerian. (2) Term used since 1869 for the East Semitic language that is also known by its northern and southern dialects as Assyrian and ... More

alphabets of Italy  

John Penney

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Linguistics
There is no evidence for any form of writing in Italy before the arrival of Greek colonists in the 8th cent. bce. The Euboean alphabet brought by settlers at *Pithecusae (mod. Ischia) and *Cumae was ... More

Anatolian languages  

Anna Morpurgo Davies

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Linguistics
In the course of the 20th cent. new evidence emerged for a family of closely related languages attested in Anatolia (Turkey) from the 16th cent. bce and indirectly known two or three centuries ... More

Aramaic  

J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aramaic, a *Semitic language, was used in the ancient near east from early in the 1st millennium bce and through the Roman period. Originating in upper Mesopotamia, it is first known ... More

archaism in Latin  

Leofranc Holford-Strevens

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Linguistics
Archaism is the employment of obsolete or obsolescent diction intended as such (not the conservative retention of the language with which one grew up, nor the colloquial preservation of expressions ... More

bilingualism  

Rosalind Thomas

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Linguistics
Widespread bilingualism at some level was characteristic of the ancient world, whether we look for(a) bilingual communities, in which two languages are in use (e.g. official and popular languages, ... More

British Latin  

Benjamin Fortson

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Subject:
Linguistics
The Latin spoken in the British Isles during and shortly after the Roman occupation (43–410ce). It left numerous traces in loanwords into British Celtic (spoken by the indigenous Celtic ... More

Carian language  

Anna Morpurgo Davies

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Linguistics
Direct evidence for the Carian language (see caria) is limited to approximately 30 inscriptions from Caria proper and well above 200 inscriptions (some still unedited) written by Carian speakers in ... More

Celtic languages  

John Penney

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Linguistics
The Celtic branch of Indo-European is traditionally divided into Insular Celtic and Continental Celtic. The records of the Continental Celtic languages consist of names, occurring in profusion in ... More

cuneiform  

Stephanie Dalley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cuneiform is wedge-shaped writing thought to have developed from impressions of clay tokens and incised pictograms by impressing the triangular cross-section of a reed upon clay. First ... More

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